Uses of Participles

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243. Fοlloςwing out the vieςw ob the Participle as a Verbal Adjective, ςwe may distihnguish the follοςw- ing uses :-

1, Thα Participle is often used as an ordinary Adjective quali- fying a Noun; as θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες, βροτοὶ σῖτον ἔδοντες, πίθοι ποτὶ τοῖχον ἀρηρότες, σάκος τετυγμένον, and the like. In one or tςwο cases it is Substantival : as τὸ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων, ψυχαὶ εἴδωλα καμόντων, Ολύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες. ΑA feςw Participles have lost their Verbal character altogether : esp. οὐλόμενος ππiκeraὐίe, ὀνήμενος 3αρπηγ, ἴκμενος secμμnadus, ἄσμενος 9ad, ἑκών wwittiπ9, ἔθων (better ἐθόν, since it is an Aοr. in form, ἦ R1,

1) accοτdiπ9 to κwοnt, περιπλόμενος (in the phrase περιπλο- μένων ἐνιαυτῶν tθe τeνοίυiπg γeaτσ) ; also the Substantival μέδοντες ruterw, τένοντες πscίe, ἀμείβοντες τqfteτς, αἴθουσα a ροτtίcο, δράκων a πeτρeκ, γέρων, μοῦσα, The ςwοrd κρείων τuίer retains a trace of the Verb in εὐρὺ κρείων wide[γ rutiπg. Cp. also the compounds πολύ-τλας, ἀ-κάμας, ἀ-δάμας, λυκά-βας.

2. Much more frequently, the Participle qualifies or forms part of the predication (ἢ 162): e.g. in sch combinations as- διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε parted ἀaνig ᾳuarreted ἐῦφρονέων ἀγορήσατο προὶe witὰ 9οοd tᾶομ9ὰt the Participle has the same construction as the Adjective in παλίνορσος ἀπέστη, or πρόφρων τέτληκας (ἢ 162, 2). Thus it serves to express a predication which the speaker vwishes to sαb- ordinate in some way to that of the governing Verb. The Participle may express diferent relations : attendant ciτcuπustance or πaanπer (as in the examples quoted) ; cause, as lL 11. 3 1 3 τί παθόντε λελάσμεθα θούριδος ἀλκῆς; ῃροείtiοn, as often. ςwith καί and περ, 8xc.(Goodςwin, 5 832-846).

3. Finally, a Participle construed in ' Appοsitiοαʼ to α Nοαn in an oblique Case may imply a predication (ὃ 168); as καπνὸν ἀποθρύσκοντα νοῆσαι to descτγ tᾶe aπmοὶe τisίπg (i. e. μwἄen it τίς es, or tἄat it τiweς, 8Sdc.). Note that-

(α) Α Participle of this kind often has the character of a distinct Clause, coming at the end of a sentence, and after a metrical p2S2 : S- Il. 4. 420 δεινὸν δʼ ἔβραχε χαλκὸς ἐπὶ στήθεσσιν ἄνακτος ὀρνυμένου (as 2e τομuaed iwzvef ). Od. 23. 205 ὡς φάτο, τῆς δʼ αὐτοῦ λύτο γούνατα καὶ φίλον τορ σήματʼ ἀναγνούσης (wen wἀe τeco9nised re tοἑea).

(b) Not unfreqαently the word with which the Participle shoαld be construed is understood : especially ςwhen it is a Partitive or quasi-Partitive Gen. (ἤη 147, 151) :e- Il. 2. 153 ἀῦτὴ δʼ οὐρανὸν ἵκεν οἴκαδε ἱεμένων a cττγ τοve to 2eaνen (ηῳʼ πaeπa) eager to τeturπ ἀορe so Il. 12. 339, 13- 291, 498, 15. 689. 5. 162 πόρτιος ἠὲ βοὸς ξύλοχον κάτα βοσκομενάων a ἀeger or cοκw (ῳʼ t2οςe) taαt are feediπ9 in a thicέet. 5. 665 τὸ μὲν οὔ τις ἐπεφράσατʼ οὐδʼ ἐνόησε μηροῦ ἐξερύσαι δόρυ μείλινον, ὄφρ’ ἐπιβαίη, σπευδόντων πο one - Il. Il. (ῃ tἀem) in tθeir 2aςte2 cp. 15. 450 τό οἱ οὗ τις ἐρύκακεν ἰεμέναων περ. 18. 246 ὀρθῶν δʼ ἑσταότων ἀγορὴ γένετʼ an asseμuθy wας ἄε2 auρstaπdiπρ (ῃ tἀeρm ςt2πdiπς πuρ). Od. 17. 489 Γηλέμαχος δʼ ἐν μὲν κραδίῃ μέγα πένθος ἄεξε βλημένου (for ἄiς ἄaνiπ9 been wομunded). So with the Dative ; Il. 12. 3θ4 ἐπειγομένοισι δʼ ἵκοντο caρue as a retieff (to tieπm) μκwἄeπn tἀεγ μwere ἀard ρτesedd; Od. 5. 152 κατείβετο δὲ γλυκὺς αἰὼν νόστον ὀδυρομένῳ.

(c) The Subject thus αnderstood may be indefinite :- ll. 2. 291 πόνος ἐστὶν ἀνιηθέντα νέεσθαι (see ἡ 233). 6. 267 οὐδέ πῃ ἔστι κελαινεφέῖ Κρονίωνι αἵματι καὶ λύθρῳ πεπαλαγμένον εὐχετάασθαι for one wὰο iw ὁesρattered Il. Il. 2ο pτααy. 1 3. 787 πὰρ δύναμιν δʼ οὐκ ἔστι καὶ ἐσσύμενον πολεμίζειν. So ll. 2. 234, 14. ὅ3, Od. 2. 31 1 : cp. the phrase ὅσον τε γέγωνε βοήσας as far as a πan πaδeς ἄiπuwe[7 ἄeard γ ς2οutiπg.

(d) Thα Participle is sometimes found in a dἀifferent Case from a preceding Pronoun with which it might have been construed. This we have— Π. 14. 25 λάκε δέ σφι περὶ χροῒ χαλκὸς ἀτείρης νυσσομένων (construed with χροΐ instead of σφι). 16. 531 ὅττι οἱ ὦκ’ ἥκουσε μέγας θεὸς εὐξαμένοιο with ἤκουσε instead of οἱ). Od. 9. 256 ὣς ἔφαθʼ, ἡμῖν δʼ αὖτε κατεκλάσθη φίλον ἦτορ δεισάντων (so Il. 3. 301, Od. 6. 157, 9. 458). Il. 20. 4 13 τὸν βάλε Il. Il. Il. νῶτα παραίσσοντος wounded him Il. Il. Il. in the back as he darted past Od. 4. 646 η σε βίῃ ἀέκοντος ἀπηύρα. Il. 10. 187 ὣς τῶν νήδυμος ὕπνος ἀπὸ βλεφάροιϊν ὀλώλει νύκτα φυλασσομένοισι κακήν : so Il. 14. 14 1–3. Od. 17. 355 μεταλλῆσαί τί ἑ θυμὸς ἀμφὶ πόσει κέλεται καὶ κήδεά περ πεπαθυίῃ. We need not consider these as instances of ' Anacoluthon ' or change of the construction. The Participle, as we saw, does not need a preceding Pronoun : it may therefore have a construction independent of such a Pronoun. And it is characteristic of 11. Homer not to employ concord as a means of connecting distant words when other constructions are admissible.