Form of the Relative Clause

Book Nav


271. It is characteristic of the Relative Clause that the Verb to θe is often omitted : as-

Il. 8. 524 μῦθος δʼ ὃς μὲν νῦν ὑγιής, εἰρημένος ἔστω

and so ὅσσοι Ἀχαιοί, οἴ περ ἄριστοι, ᾖ τις ἀρίστη, ὅς τ αἶτιος ὅς τε καὶ οὐκί, etc. Hence we should write in Il. 11.535, 20.500 ἄντυγες ad περὶ δίφρον, in ll. 21.353 ἰχθύες οἱ κατὰ δίνας. So ςwith the Adverbs; as

Od. 10. 176 ὄφρʼ ἐν νηί θοῇ βρῶσίς τε πόσις τε
sο lοng as there is fοοd and drink in the ship

I. This ellipse leads to a peculiar 'Attractionʼ into the Case of the Antecedent, found chiefly ςwith ὅσος τε, as-

Od. 10. 113 τὴν δὲ γυναῖκα ] εὔρον ὅσην τʼ ὄρεος κορυφήν,

which is equivalent to τόσην ὅση ἐστὶ κορυφή ; and so ὅσον τε, Od. 9. 322, 325. 10. 167, 517, 11. 25; also οἰόν τε, Od. 19. 233- The only instance in the lied is someςwhat ἀiferent-

Il. Il. 262 οὐ γάρ πω τοίους ἴδον Il. Il. οον Γlειρίθοον κτλ.

The later Attraction of the Relative into the Case ob the Antecedent is not found in Homer. Κihner gives as an example ll. 5. 265 τῆς γάρ τοι γενεῆς ἧς Γρωί περ εὐρυόπα Ζεὺς δῶκε. But there the Gen. is partitive: 'the brood fbοπm which deus gaveʼ (ἡ 151.e). Sο Il. 23.649 (5 153).

2. Another effect of this omission may be found in the αse of double Relatival forms, especially ὡς ὅτε as (it is) wὰen; which again may be used without any Verb follovwig : e.θ.-

Il. 13.471 ἀλλʼ ἔμενʼ ὡς ὅτε τις σῦς οὔρεσιν ἀλκὶ πεποιθώς, ὅς τε μένει κτλ.

So ὡς εἰ and ὡς εἰ τε ας (it κκοud ὁe) ὴ, as in B. 5- 373 τίς νύ σε τοιάδʼ ἔρεξε Il. Il. ὡς εἴ τι κακὸν ῥέζουσαν.

A similar account is probably to be given of the pecαliar double Relative -

Il. 8. 229 πῇ ἔβαν εὐχωλαί, ὅτε δὴ φάμεν εἶναι ἄριστοι, ἂς ὁπότʼ ἐν Ἀήμνῳ κενεαυχέες ἠγοράασθε
whence once (whenever it was) yοu made boast in Lemnos

3. The want of a finite verb also leads to the construction of οἷος, φς, Sc. with the nfinitive. This is only beginning in Homer: see ἡ 235. br arises by a kind of mixture or 'contami- nation of tςwo simple constructions, vi2.-

(1) the ordinary Inf. ςwith the Demonstratives τοῖος, τηλίκος, c. (ἡ 232): as τοῖοι ἀμυνέμεν gʼ tἄe ἑind to dgὲnd (Od. 2. 60, μένειν ἔτι τηλίκος ῃʼtὰe αρefοτ τeρmαiπiπρ (Od. 17. 20);

(2) the Correlative fhorm, sαch as 7. 5. 483 τοῖον οἰόν κ ἢὲ φέροιεν Ἀχαιοὶ ἦ κεν ἄγοιεν: ll. 7. 231 ἡμεῖς δʼ εἰμὲν τοῖοι οἱ ἂν σέθεν ἀντιάσαιμεν.

Thus (e.g.) Od. 21. 172 τοῖον Il. Il. οἷόν τε ῥυτῆρα βιοῦ τ ἔμεναι καὶ οἴκτων combines the forms τοῖον ἔμεναι ῃ tἄe ἑiππd to ὁe and τοῖον οἰός τε (ἐστί) ῃ tἄe ἑinad tἄαt (iσ). n other words, the construction of τοῖος is transferred to the Correlatives τοῖος -οἶος. Then τοῖος is omitted, and we get οἶος ςwith the mf. The same may be said of ὥς τε with the mf., which is post-Homeric.

272. Double Relative Clauses. When a relative introduces two or more Clauses connected by καί or δέ, it need not be construed with any clause after the first.

Il. 1.162 ιὧ ἔπι πόλλʼ ἐμόγησα, δόσαν δέ μοι υἷες χαιῶν
for which I tοiled, and which the sons of the Greeks gave me

Od. 2.114 τῷ ὅτεῳ τε πατὴρ κέλεται καὶ ἁνδάνει αὐτῇ
and who is pleasing to herself

Γhe Relative is not repeated in any Clause of this form ; but its place is often taken by another Pronoun (usually an enclitic, or an unemphatic αὐτός).

Il. 1.78 ἦ γὰρ ὁἰομαι ἄνδρα χολωσέμεν, ὃς μέγα πάντων Ἀργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται χαιοί.

Od. 9. 19 εἴμʼ Oδυσεὺς Λαερτιάδης, ὃς πᾶσι δόλοισιν ἀνθρώποισι μέλω, καί μευ κλέος οὐρανὸν ἵκει.

This idiom, it ahold be observed, is not peculiar to Homer, but prevails in all periods of Greek (Κuhner, Il. p. 935).

On the same principle, when a succession of Clauses is intro- duced by a Relatival Adverb, the first Verb may be in the Subj. or Opt, while the rest are in the ndic. This is especially noticeable in similes, as-

Il. 2.147 ὡς δʼ ὅτε κινήσῃ έφυρος βαθὺ λήίον ἐλθών, λάβρος ἐπαιγίζων, ἐπί τʼ ἠμύει ἀσταχύεσσι.

Il. 4. 483 ᾖ ῥά τʼ ἐν εἰαμενῇ ἕλεος μεγάλοιο πεφύκῃ λείη, ἀτάρ τέ οἱ ὄζοι ἐπʼ ἀκροτάτῃ πεφύασι.

Successive Relative Clauses not connected by a Conjunction are frequent in Homer. The Relative may be repeated for the sake of emphasis.

Od. 2. 130 δόμων ἀέκουσαν ἀπῶσαι ᾖ μʼ ἔτεχʼ ᾖ μʼ ἔθρεψε.

Or the second Clause is epexegetic of the first.

Il. 5.453 σχέτλιος, ὀβριμοεργός, ὃς οὐκ ὄθετʼ αἴσυλα ῥέζων, ὃς τόξοισιν ἔκηδε θεούς (so 6. 131., 17. 6774, etc.)

Or it marks the return to the main thread ob the narrative.

Od. 14. 288 δὴ τότε Φοῖνιξ λθεν ἀνήο, ἀπατήλια εἰδώς, τρώκτης, ὃς δὴ πολλὰ κάκʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ἐώργει, ὅς μʼ ἄγε παρπεπιθὼν κτλ. (cp. Il. 15.461-3.)

Where different Pronouns are used as Relatives in successive Causes, the reason of the variety may often be traced. Thus in H. 16. 157 οἱ δὲ λύκοι ὡς ὠμοφάγοι, τοῖσίν τε περὶ φρεσὶν ἄσπετος ἀλκή, οἴ τ ἔλαφον Il. Il. δάπτουσιν, the Art. τοῖσι gives a characteristic of at ςwοlves, the Ret. οἴ passes to tθe wolves of the particular simile. In both the meaning la general, accordingly τε is used.

Again, we find ὅς τε introducing a general assertion, while ὅς relates to a particular fact: as Π. 4. 442 τʼ ὀλίγη μὲν πρῶτα κορύσσεται Il. Il. ᾖ σφιν καὶ τότε κτλ. ; 5- 545 Ἀλφειοῦ, ὅς τʼ εὐρὺ ῥέει Πυλίων διὰ γαίης, ὃς τέκετʼ Ορσίλοχον: and in the reverse order, Il. 18. 520 οἱ δʼ ὅτε δή ῥʼ ἵκανον ὅθι σφίσιν εἶκε λοχῆσαι ἐν ποταμή, ὅθι τʼ ἀρδμὸς ἔην.

Γhe ἀiference between ὅς τις and ὅς τε appears in Od. 6. 286 καὶ δʼ ἄλλῃ νεμεσῶ ἦ τις τοιαῦτά γε ῥέζοι, ἦ τ ἀέκητι φίλων πατρὸς καὶ μητρὸς ἐόντων ἀνδράσι μίσγηται. H ere ἦ τις insists on the in- clusion of all members of the class (anγ οme wὰο-), ἦ τε prep9Sres us for the class characteristics (one ῃʼ tie ἑiπd tᾶαt-).