ὐπέρ

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217. The Prepositiοn ὐπέρ (or ὐπείρ) means higher, hence ονer, beyond. It is not found in the adverbial use, or in Tmesis, or with a Dative.

In Composition ὐπέρ expresses going across or beyond, hence excess, violation of limits, etc.

218. With the Accusative ὐπέρ is used

    1. of motion or extent over a space.
      Il. 23.227 ὑπεὶρ ἄλα κίδναται ἠώς.

      This use is not common; Il. 12.289, 24.13, Od. 3.58, 4.172- 9.254, 260.

    2. of motion passing over an object
      Il. 5.16 ὑπὲρ ἅμον, ἀριστερὸν ἤλυθ’ ἀκωκή
      Od. 7.135 ὑπὲρ οὐδὸν ἐβήσετο.

    3. metaphorically, iπ excess of, in violation of: ὑπὲρ αἴσαν, ὑπὲρ μοίραν, ὑπὲρ ὅρκια: also, somewhat differently, Il. 17.327 ὑπὲρ θεόν in spite of God.

219. With the Genitive ὐπέρ is used both of position and of motion over an object, esp. at some distance from it.

στῆ δʼ ἄρʼ ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς
Π. 23. 327 ὅσον τ ὄργυι ὑπὲρ αἴης a fathom's length above ground.

Metaphorically it means over so as to protect, hence in defense of, on behalf of

Il. 7.449 τεῖχος ἐτειχίσσαντο νεῶν ὕπερ
Il. 1.444 ἑκατόμβην ῥέξαι ὑπὲρ Δαναῶν.

So Il. 6. 524 ὅθʼ ὑπὲρ σέθεν αἴσχε ἀκούω when I listen to reproaches on your account (of which 1 bear the brunt). But Hes. Op. 217 δίκη δʼ ὑπὲρ ὕβριος ἴσχει justice rises (prevails) over insolence.

In respect of form ὐπέρ (for ὑπέρι, Sanskrit ράri) is a Comparative of ὁπό; cp. the Superlative ὕπατος, and the Lat. superus, summus. Hence the Gen. is ablatival, like the Gen. with words of comparison ; see ἡ 153.