Classification of Sentences

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273. Before entering upon an examination of the Homeric uses ob the Moods, it will be con- venient to give some account of the ddiβferent kinds of Sentences and Clauses with which ςwe shat have to deal.

A Simple Sentence-or the principal Clause in a Complex Sentence-may be purely [θίτπmatiνe. Or, the affirmation may be turned (either by the use of a suαitable Pronoun or Particle, or by the tone and manner in which it is uttered) into a ques- tion: i. e. the Sentence may be bnterrogatice. Or, a predication may be framed in order to be denied: in which case a Particle is added to make the Sentence Veρatiνe. Or, the Sentence may express θʼκἄ, Γμuτροςe, or Cοuwaπnd ; and any of these may again be combined with a Negative, so as to express some variety of τοὲibitiοan. Or, once more, the Sentence may be Cοndtίοat, i.e. may assert, deny, command, 8Cc. subject to a hypothesis; and this hypothesis or condition may be expressed by a subordinate Clause, or by an Adverb or adverbial phrase (taeπn, in taut case, or the like): or the condition need not be expressed at alL but conveyed by the drift of the context.

A Subordinate Clause may be so loosely connected with the principal Clause as to be virtually an independent sentence. VWe have seen that this is generally the case (for example) ςwwith Clauses introduced by the Article (ἢ 262). The Claαses which chicly concern us now are-

  1. Dependent Interrogative Clauses.
  2. Prohibitive Clauses (νὴππest).
  3. Relative Clauses proper (introduced by ὅς).
  4. Claαses introduced by a Relatival Adverb (ὡς, ὅθι, ὅθεν, ὅτε, ἕως, ὄφρα, 8xc.; also ἔνθα, ἴνα, and ἐπεί).
  5. Clauses introduced by εἰ g.

This classification is based upon the grammatical fοrπa of the Clause. If we look to the relation in point of πmeaning between the two clauses of a complex sentence, we find that subordinate Clauses fall into a wholly different set of groups. Thus there are-

  1. Clauses expressing cause or reason as-

    Il. 2. 274 νῦν δὲ τόδε μέγʼ ἄριστον ἐν ργείοισιν ἔρεξεν, ὃς τὸν λωβητῆρα ἐπεσβόλον ἔσχʼ ἀγοράων.

    And clauses like

    Il. 4.157 ὥς σʼ ἔβαλον Γρῶες
    siπce the Trojans have thus shot at γοu

    Il. 6.166 οἶον ἄκουσε
    at hearίπg such a thing (ἢ 267.3)

    as well as in the regular causal use of ὅ, ὅτι, ὅ τε (ἢ 269), and οὄνεκα.

  2. Clauses expressing the object of verbs of saying, knowing, thinking, etc. (i.e. the fact or thing said, etc.).

    Il. 2.365 γνόσῃ ἔπειθʼ ὅς θʼ ἡγεμόνων κακός, ὅς τέ νυ λαῶν.

    Od. 6.141 ὁ δὲ μερμήριξεν Oδυσσεὺς ἦ . . . ἦ κτλ.

    Il. 18.125 γνοῖεν δʼ ὡς δὴ δηρὸν ἐγὰὼ πολέμοιο πέπαυμαι.

    Il. 18.601 πειρήσεται αἴ κε θέῃσιν (tries if it will run).

  3. Clauses expressing condition or limitation, which may be introduced-

    By ὅς:

    τῶν οἱ νῦν βροτοί εἰσι
    of the mortals now living

    ὅς κʼ ἐπιδευής
    he who is in want

    ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται
    he who shall obey the gods

    ὅ τι οἱ εἴσαιτο
    whatever seemed to him

    By a Relatival Adverb: of manner, as

    ὡς ἂν ἐγὼν εἴπω as I shall speak

    of time: ἐπεί, ὅτε, etc., also ἕως and ὄφρα when they mean so long as

    of place, as

    ὁππόθι πιότατον πεδίον
    where is the richest of the plain

    By εἰ-the common form of conditional protasis.

    It will be convenient to term all these clauses 'conditional' - the word being taken in a wide sense, so as to include every clause of the nature of a definition or limitation, as well as those in which actual priority in time is implied.

  4. Final Clauses, expressing end or purpose: introduced-

    By ὅς.

    Il. 4.190 ἐπιθήσει φάρμαχʼ ἄ κεν παύσῃσι
    will apply drugs which shall stay

    Il. 14.107 νῦν δʼ εἴη ὃς . . . ἐνίσποι
    may there be one who may tell

    By ὡς, ὅπως, ἴνα-the ordinary forms expressing purpose.

    By ἕως (better written ἢος in Homer1) and ὄφρα, when they mean tilt ςνucὰ tiπe tint. Γo these we may add εἰς ὅ ntit, vwhich (like οὕνεκα) is practically a single word.

    By εἰ or αἰ.

    Il. 1.420 εἶμʼ αὐτὴ . . . αἴ κε πίθηται
    I go in the hope that we will listen.

    By μή lest (= ἵνα μή).

It is important to observe that the several groups of Clauses now pointed out are generally indistinguishable in respect of grammatical form ; so that Clauses of the same form (introduced by the same Pronoun or Particle, and with a Verb of the same bense and Mood) often bear entirely dferent meanings. Tbhis vwi1 be shovwn in detail in the course of the present chapter ; meanwhile a few instances may be noted as illustrations.

  1. Final Clauses introduced by ὅ2 are in the same form as the Conditional or limitiεng Clauses such as ὅς κε τύχη, ὅττι κεν εἴπpς, k1c.
  2. The regular Final Clauses vvwith ἀἀ and ὅπως are in the same form as the limiting ἄὡς ν ἑγν εἴπαr αa sιαὶὶ speακς, ὅπας ἑθέλσιν as ὰe pleases, ὰc.
  3. Clauses vwith ἕω2 and ὄφρα may either be Conditional (vwhen the Con- junction means so ὑοng as), or Final (vwhen it means ntιl).
  4. The Final Clause with εἷ is indistinguishable in form from the ordinary Conditional Protasis : compare αἴ κε πίθηται to see (f ὴe wίll ἰιsten vwith ll. 24. 5G2 μή μοι άτροκκλε σκυδμαινέμεν αἴ aκε πύθηαι de not αngῳ in case yoιι heατ.
  5. Clauses vwith ῳνh may either be Final (vwhen μήπἴνα μή), or Object- Clauses after a Verb of eαri9 (δείδαω μή).

From these examples it is evident that in this as in so many parts of Greek grammar the most important differences of meaning are not expressed by corresponding distinctions of form. The Pronoun or Coniunction vwhich connects the subordinate vwith the principal Clause generally leaves the real relation betςween the tvwo Clauses to be gathered from the context.

These different kinds of Sentence are distinguished to some extent by means of Particles, of which it swill be enough to say here that-

  1. Strong afίτπuαtiοn is expressed by ἢ, and the same Par- ticle is employed in 0terτοgαtiοn (especially ςwith ironical force).
  2. eρatiοn is expressed by οκί(οκ, οὁ), Pτοiδitiοn by ῳμή.
  3. The Particle εἰ, in its ordinary use, marks a Cοnditiοnal τοtasis, i.e. a Claαse stating a condition or supposition.
  4. The Particles κε(ν) and ἄν mark a predication as being COρanditiοnat, or made in view of some limitation to particular conditions or circumstances.
  • 1. Ti is often convenient to use the Attic form ἴως as the name of the Particle, but this cannot be the true Homeric form. The metre shovvws that it must be a trochee ; andἄ the Doric ἄ2 (AAhrens, bαὶ. bοτ. p. 200) represents contraction of ἄος : cp. the Cretan τάας for τέαως (HHesych.). Hence vwe should have iεn Homer either ος (the older onic form, cp. νηός) or ἄος, which wouldd properly be Doric or Colic, like λᾶός kc. Of these ἢος is evidently the more probable.