Order of Particles and Enclitic Pronouns

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365. The place of a Particle in the Homeric sentence is generally determined by stricter rules than those which obtain in later Greek : and similar rules are found to govern the order of the enclitic Pronouns and Adverbs.

  1. The two enclitics περ and γε, when they belong to the first sword in a clause, come before al other Particles. Hence we have the sequences εἴ περ γάρ -εἴ περ ἄν-τοῦ περ δή--πόθεόν γε μέν, 8dc. Exceptions are to be found in Il. 9. 46 εἰς ὅ κέ περ Γροίην διαπέρσομεν (read perhaps εἰς ὅτε περ), Π. 7. 387 εἴ κέ περ ὔμμι Il. Il. γένοιτο, Od. 3. 321 ὅθεν τέ περ, Π. 8. 243 αὐτοὺς δή περ ἔασον.
  2. ἐν and δέ, also τε in its use as a connecting word, come before other Particles. Hence ςwe have οἱ δὲ δή-εἰ δέ κεν-ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι-εἰ δʼ ἄν-οὐ μὲν γάρ-οὔτε κε-οὔτʼ ἄρα, etc.

    μέν may be placed later when it emphasizes a particular word, or 7part of a clause, especially in vieςw of a following clause ςwith δέ, as ll. 9. 300 εἰ δέ τοι Ἀτρείδης μὲν ἀπήχθετο Il. Il. σὺ δʼ ἄλλους περ κτλ, Od. 4. 23-, 11. 385, 18. 67, 8Sdc.; and in such collocations as σοὶ δʼ ἦ τοι μὲν ἐγὼ κτλ., ἔνθʼ ἦ τοι τοὺς μὲν κτλ. Cp. also Od. 15. 405 οὔ τι περιπληθὴς λίην τόσον, ἀλλʼ ἀγαθὴ μέν.

    The form ὄφρʼ ἂν μέν κεν is probably corrupt, see ἦ 362 ad fin.

  3. Of the remaining Particles γάρ comes first: as ἦ γάρ κε- τίς γάρ κε-εἴ περ γάρ κε-τόφρα γὰρ ἄν-ὡς γάρ νύ τοι, 8Cc. Among the other PArticles note the sequences καί νύ κεν-ἐξ ἄρα δή-ὁππότε κεν δή-ἢ ῥά νυ-τίς τοί νυ. But ἄρα is sometimes put later in the clause, as ὡς εἰπὼν κατʼ ἄρʼ ἕζετο, cp. ll. 5. 748 Hρη δὲ μάστιγι θοῶς ἐπιμαίετʼ ἄρʼ ἵππους.

    τε in its generalizing use comes after other Particles: hence δέ τε-μμέν τεγάρ τε-ἀλλά τε-δʼ ἄρα τε-ὅς ῥά τε-οὔτʼ ἄρ τε- οὔ νύ τε.

  4. The indefinite τις and the corresponding Adverbs, πο, πωs, πω, more dc. foloςw the Particles. Hence vwe have ὅτε κέν τι- ς αἴ κέν πως-τʼ ἄν ποτε-ὅν ῥά τις -δή που-νύ που-ἢ πού τί σε, etc.

    But τε folοws τις (ἢ 332), as in καὶ γάρ τίς τε, ὅς τίς τε. And sometimes ὅς τις is treated as a single vword, as in ὅν τινα μέν (. 2. 188), ὅς τις δέ (Ii. 15- 743, ὅς τίς κε (l. 10. 44, Od. 3. 353S- imilarly ςwe find εἰ ποτε in the combi2nation εἴ ποτε δή, as vwel as the more regular εἰ δή ποτε.

    τις sometimes comes later, as Il. 4. 300 ὄφρα καὶ οὐκ ἐθέλων τις κτλ., especially after a Gen. which it governs, as D. 13. 55 σφῶίν δʼ ὥδε θεῶν τις κτλ.; cp. also Π. 22. 4ῶ4 τῶν δʼ ἐλεησάντων κοτύ- λην τις τυτθὸν ἐπέσχεν, and Od. 21. 374.

    So more as in ll. 4. 410 τῷ μή μοι πατέρας ποθʼ ὁμοίῃ ἔνθεο τιμῇ, Il. 6. 99 οὐδʼ Ἀχιλῆά ποθʼ ὥδε κτλ, ll. 10. 453, Od. 2. 137. n these places ποτε seems to be attracted to an emphatic sword. Cp. ποu in Π. 12. 272, ποθεν in Od. 18. 376.

  5. The enclitic Personal Pronouns come after the Particles and Pronouns alhready mentioned : οὔ ποτέ με- πή με-οὐδέ νύ πώ με-οὐ γάρ πώ ποτέ μοι-ἐγm δέ κέ τοι-ἐπεὶ ἄρ κέ σε-ὁππότε κέν μιν-αἴ κέν πώς μιν-οὐ γάρ πώ σφιν-ἢ πού τίς σφιν, ὅCc. Sometimes however an enclitic form folloςws the emphatic Pro- noun αὐτός : as Π. 5- 459 αὐτὰρ ἔπειτʼ αὐτῷ μοι ἐπέσσυτο, ll. 22. 346 αἱ γάρ πως αὐτόν με κτλ.

    Occasionally an enclitic is found out of its place at the end of a line which has the bucolic caesura.

    Il. 3. 368 οὐδʼ ἔβαλόν μιν v. ll. οὐδʼ ἐδάμασσα)

    Il. 5. 104 εἰ ἐτεόν με

    Il. 7. 79 ὄφρα πυρός με

    Il. 11.380 ὡς ὄφελόν τοι : so with τις

    Il. 4. 315 ὡς ὄφελέν τις;

    and without bucolic caesura

    Il. 17. 736 ἐπὶ δὲ πτόλεμος τέτατό σφιν.

  6. The negative Particles οὐ and μή which regularly begin the clause, are often put later in order that some other word may be emphasised, and in that case the indefinite τις, more &c. follow οὐ or μή: as μετάλλησάν γε μὲν οὔ τι ( for οὐ μέν τι μετάλλησάν γε), κείνοισι δʼ ἂν οὔ τις (for οὐ δʼ ἄν τις κείνοισι), σὺ δὲ μή τι, τὸ μὲν οὔ more &c. Similarly κεν and ἄν are attracted to the negation as in πληθὺν δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἐγώ (for οὐδʼ ἂν ἐγὼ πληθύν), and when the negative is repeated, as in οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδέ κεν κτλ.: cp. Od. 15. 321 δρηστοσύνῃ οὐκ ἄν μοι ἐρίσσειε βροτὸς ἄλλος.The place of the enclitic is perhaps explained by the pause of the verse in

    Od. 15. 118 ὅθʼ ἑὸς δόμος ἀμφεκάλυψε κεῖσέ με νοστήσαντα

    Od. 14. 245 αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα | Αἴγυπτόνδε με κτλ. (unless we read κεῖσʼ ἐμὲ, Aἴγυπτόνδʼ ἐμὲ, cp. Od. 16. 310)

    and so in—

    Il. 1. 205 ᾗς ὑπεροπλίῃσι τάχʼ ἄν ποτε θυμὸν ὀλέσσῃ.

    Il. 256 ἄλλοι τε Τρῶες μέγα κεν κεχαροίατο θυμῷ.

    Il. 5. 362 Τυδείδης, ὃς νῦν γε καὶ ἂν Διὶ πατρὶ μάχοιτο.

    22. 108 ὣς ἐρέουσιν· ἐμοὶ δὲ τότʼ ἂν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴη.

    Od. Il. 217 ὡς δὴ ἐγώ γʼ ὄφελον μάκαρός νύ τευ ἔμμεναι υἱός.

    The second half of the line is treated as a fresh beginning of a sentence.

    Without assuming that the Homeric usage as to the place of Particles and Enclitics is invariable, we may point out that in several places where these rules are violated the text is doubtful on other grounds.

    Il. 3. 173 ὡς ὄφελεν θάνατός μοι ἁδεῖν. Read ὥς μʼ ὄφελεν θάνατος ϝαδέειν

    for the elision μ(οι) cp. Il. 6. 165 ὅς μʼ ἔθελεν φιλότητι μιγήμεναι (§ 376).

    Il. 6. 289 ἔνθʼ ἔσαν οἱ πέπλοι κτλ.

    Read ἔνθα ϝʼ ἔσαν (see § 376). Similarly in

    Il. 20. 282 κὰδ δʼ ἄχος οἱ χύτο Van Leeuwen reads κὰδ δέ ϝʼ ἄχος χύτο.

    Od. Il. 37 ἐπεὶ πρό οἱ εἴπομεν ἡμεῖς.

    Bekker would omit πρό (Hom. Bl. ii. 21).

    Od. 2. 327 ἐπεί νύ περ ἵεται αἰνῶς (read νύ τε ϝίεται?).

    Od. 15. 436 ὅρκῳ πιστωθῆναι ἀπήμονά μʼ οἴπαδʼ ἀπάξειν. (Omit μʼ.)

    Od. 11. 218 ἀλλʼ αὕτη δίκη ἔστὶ βροτῶν, ὅτε κέν τε θάναωσιν

    with v. l. (in five MSS.) ὅτε τίς κε θάνῃσιν. Read ὅτε τίς τε θάνῃσιν (§ 289 ad fin.).

    Il. 20. 77 τοῦ γάρ ῥα μάλιστά ἑ θυμὸς ἀνώγει

    so Aristarchus, but the other ancient reading was μάλιστά γε.

    Il. 21. 576 εἴ περ γὰρ φθάμενός μιν ἦ οὐτάσῃ κτλ.

    for μιν the "city editions" had τις, but neither word is needed.

    Od. 7. 261 (= 14. 287) ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ὄγδοόν μοι ἐπιπλόμενον ἔτος ἦλθεν

    Dind. reads ὀγδόατον, to avoid the unusual synizesis. Read ἀλλʼ ὅτε δή μʼ ὄγδωον: an earlier ὄγδωος (= Lat. octavus is almost necessary to account for ὄγδοος (Brugmann, M. U. v. 37).

    Il. 5. 273 εἰ τούταω κε λάβοιμεν κτλ.

    For κε (without meaning here) read γε.

    I1. 14. 403 ἐπεὶ τέτραπτο πρὸς θύ οἴ.

    The sense seems to require πρὸς ἰθύν in the direction ηf his αιam, cp. πᾶσαν ἐπʼ ἰθύν for eveτῳ αιm, ἀνʼ ἰθύν strαίght οn0ατds 2ll. 21. 303. d. 8.377).

    Il. 24. 53 νὴ . . . νεμεσσηθέωμέν οἱ ἡμεῖς.

    Read θήομεν, omitting οἱ.

    A less strict usage may be traced in the 10th book of the Iliad.

    Il. 1. 44 ᾖ τίς κεν

    Il. 1.242 εἷ μὲν δὴ ἕταρόν γε κελεύετέ μʼ αὐτὸν ἑλέσθαι

    Il. 1.280 νῦν οὗτε μάλιστά με φῖλαι,

    Il. 1. 344 ἀλλʼ ἐῶμέν μιr, 453 οὐκέτʼ ἔπειτα σὺ πῆμά ποτʼ ἔσσεαι

    The subject, however, needs more detailed investigation.