Adjectival Use of Nouns

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165. Substantive and Adjective. This seems a convenient place for one or twο remarks on the distinction expressed by these terms.

It will be seen from ξ 1 14 and 117 that there is no general diference in the mode of forming Substantives and Adjectives. Certain Suffixes, however, are chiefly or wholly employed in the formation of abstract and cοttectiυe Nouns: as in the Feminine CNouns in -τι-ς, -τιυ-ς, -δῶν, the Neuters in -μα[τ), the Denomin- atives in -της (Gen. -τητ-ος).

In respect of meaning and use the distinction betςween the concrete Substantives and Adjectives is practical rather than ogical. Certain Nouns are mainly used as qualifying words in agreement ςwith other Nouns ; these are classed as Adjectives. In such combinations as βοῦς ταῦρος, ἀνέρες ἀλφησταί, χαλκῆες ἄνδρες, βασιλεὺς Κῦρος, ἀγαμέμνων Ἀτρείδης, where the qualifying vwοrd is one that is not generally used as an Adjective, vwe speak ob the ' adjectival use b of a Substantive. Conversely, when an Adjective stands by itsef to denote an individual or group of objects, the use is called ' substantivalb : e.g. κακός a ὁαse fetοw, κακά eνiw, τυκτὸν κακόν a πuaade πmiacief. Phis is a use which arises when the obects to which an Adjective applies are such as παtμuτatγ form a distinct class. Thus the Suffixes which form Nouns in -τη-ς, -τηρ, -τωρ and -ευς are practically confined to Substantives.

Abstract and Collective Nouns, it is evident, are essentially Substantives. Thus there is a clear distinction, both in form and meaning, betwween Abstract and Concrete Nouns; but not between Substantives and Adjectives.

The common definition of an Adjective as a vwοrd that expresses b quality ('Adjectives express the notion of ηoanrrv,7 Jell, ii. p. 7) is open to the οb- ections (1) that an abstract Substantive may be said to express quality, and (2) that every concrete lοun of vwhich the etymological meaning is clear expresses quality in the same way as an Adjective. E. g. the definition does not enable us to distinguish μαχητής from μαχήμμασ. t is evident that the use of a Hominative in the Predicate-as βασιλεύς ἐστι he is king-ia strictly speaking an adjectival use.

The corresponding distinction in the Pronouns does not need much explanation. The Personal Pronouns are essentially Sub- stantives (being incapable of serving as limiting or descriptive ςwοrds) ; the Possessive Pronouns are essentially Adjectives. Γhα others admit of both uses; e.g. οὗτος tiiς οκe, and ἀνὴρ οτος (in Attic ὁ ἀνὴρ οὗτος) tiiὰu πman.

166. Gender of Adjectives. In a few cases the Gender of the Adjective is independent of the Substantive with which it is construed.

  1. When a peτsοn is described by a word which properly denotes a tθiπ9 (vi2. a Neuter, as τέκνον, τέκος, 8c., or an abstract Noαn, βίη Πριάμοιο, 8xxc.), the concord of Gender is not always observed. Thus we have φίλε τέκνον (but φίλον τέκος, φίλη κεφαλή) ; again-
    Π. 11. 690 ἐλθὼν γάρ ῥʼ ἐκάκωσε βίη Ἡρακληείη (= Heracles).
    Od. 11. 90 ἢλθε δʼ ἐπὶ ψυχὴ Θηβαίου Γειρεσίαο
    χρύσεον σκῆπτρον ἔχων.

    In such cases grammarians speak of a 'construction according to the meaning' (κατὰ σύνεσιν). The term is unobjectionable, provided that we remember that constructions according to the meaning are generally older than those in which meaning is overridden by idiom or grammatical analogy.

  2. Where an Adjective refers to more than one Noun, it follows the most prominent: or (if this is at all doubtful) the Masc. is used of persons, the Neut. of things.
    Il. 2.136 αἱ δέ που ἡμέτεραί τʼ ἄλοχοι καὶ νήπια τέκνα
                 ἥατʼ ἐνὶ μεγάροις ποτιδέγμεναι

    because the wives are chiefly thought of: but-

    Il. 18.514 τεῖχος μέν ῥʼ ἄλοχοί τε φίλαι καὶ νήπια τέκνα
                   ῥύατʼ ἐφεσταότες, μετὰ δʼ ἀνέρες οὖς ἔχε γῆρας

    because the boys and old men are also in the speakerʼs mind.

    Od. 13. 435 ἀμφὶ δέ μιν ῥάκος ἄλλο κακὸν βάλεν ἠδὲ χιτῶνα,
                      ῥωγαλέα ῥυπόωντα.

    The Neut. Plur. is especially αsed of sheep and cattle

    Il. 11.244 πρῶθʼ ἑκατὸν βοῦς δῶκεν, ἔπειτα δὲ χίλι ὑπέστη, αἶγας ὁμοῦ καὶ ὄις
    II. 11. 6η6 ἐκ δʼ ὁ γέρων ἀγέλην τε βοῶν καὶ πῶῦ μέγʼ οἰῶν εἶλετο, κρινάμενος τριηκόσιʼ ἠδὲ νομῆας (three hundred head)

    cp. also ll. 5. 140, Od. 12.332.

  3. Α Noun standing as Predicate may be Neuter, although the Subject is Masc. or Fem.: as οὐκ ἀγαθὸν πολυκοιρανίη. Γhis is a kind of sαbstantival use.

167. Gender of Pronοuns. Α substantival Pronoun de- noting a peτsοn may retain its proper Gender although the antecedent is a Neuter, or an abstract word ; as ll. 22. 87 φίλον θάλος, ὃν τέκον αὐτή.

Conversely a Neuter Pronoun may be used substantivally of a thing which has been denoted by a Masc. or Fem. wοrd.

Il. 2.873 ὃς καὶ χρῦσον ἔχων πόλεμονδ’ ἴεν ἠθτε κούρη,
             νήπιος, οὐδέ τί οἱ τό γʼ ἐπήρκεσε λυγρὸν ὄλεθρον.

Cp. ll. 11. 238., 18. 460, Od. 12.74 (with the note in Merry and Riddell's edition).

On the other hand, a Pronominal Subject sometimes fοllοws the Gender of a Nounn standing as Predicate, as αὕτη δίκη ἐστί τἠw iκ re πmαnππer, ἦ θέμις ἐστί which is right. But the Neuter is preferred if a distinct object is meant by the Pronoun; as Od. Il. 226 οὐκ ἔρανος τάδε γʼ ἐστί what I see is not a club-feast.

168. Implied Predication. An Adjective (or Substantive in an adjectival use) construed with a Noun in an oblique Case may be so used as to convey a distinct predication ; as οὐκέτʼ ἐμοὶ φίλα ταῦτʼ ἀγορεύειςππ tᾶiw (tint γομu πο sρeaά) is not pleasing to me.

So after Verbs meaning to make, cause to be, call, think, etc.; λαοὺς δὲ λίθους ποίησε Κρονίων Zues made the people (to be) stοnes.

This use is parallel to that of the Nominative in the Predicate (5 162) : cp. the forms of sentence λαοὶ ἐγένοντο λίθοι, λαοὺς ἐποίησε λίθους. n the latter the predicative Noun (λίθους) is construeddἄ vwith an oblique Case, instead of vwith the Subject. A Noun so used is calledd a rκaaraa eaEooarx : cp. § 162.3.