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354. γε is used, like περ, to emphasize a particular sword or phrase. It does not hoςwever inteπnτgb the meanng, or insist on the fact as ire, but only calls attention to the word or fact, distinguishing it from others.

Il. 1.81 εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ, ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον.

Here γε shows that the ςwοrd χόλος is chosen in order to be con- trasted ςwith κότος. So too-

Il. 2. 379 εἰ δέ ποτʼ ἔς γε μίαν βουλεύσομεν, οὐκέτʼ ἔπειτα κτλ.
(if we could ever agree, instead of contending)

Again, where an idea is repeated-

Il. 5. 350 εἰ δὲ σύ γʼ ἐς πόλεμον πωλήσεαι, ἦ τέ σʼ ὁἰω ῥιγήσειν πόλεμόν γε.

Cp. also

Il. 1. 299 ἐπεί μʼ ἀφέλεσθέ γε δόντες
since you have but taken away what you gave (where we should rather emphasize δόντες)

Od. 4. 193 οὔ τοι ἔγωγε τέρπομʼ ὀδυρόμενος . . . νεμεσσῶμαί γε μὲν οὐδὲν κλαίειν κτλ.
I do not take pleasure in lamenting, but yet do not say that I complain of a man weeping, etc.

Od. 9. 393 τὸ γὰρ οὗτε σιδήρου γε κράτος ἐστί
that is the strength of iron (in particular)

Od. 10. 93 οὐ μὲν γάρ ποι ἀέξετο κῦμά γʼ ἐν αὐτῷ, οὔτε μέγʼ οὔτʼ ὀλίγον, λευκὴ δʼ ἦν ἀμφὶ γαλήνη
no wave at all (nothing that could be called a wave) rose in it, etc.

So too γε emphasizes a word as a strong or appropriate one, or as chosen under the influence of feeling (anger, contempt, etc.

Od. 9. 458 τῷ κέ οἱ ἐγκέφαλός γε . . . ῥαίοιτο κτλ.

Od. 17. 244 τῷ κέ τοι ἀγλαίας γε διασκεδάσειεν ἁπάσας

Il. 7. 198 ἐπεὶ οὐδʼ ἐμὲ νήίδά γʼ οὕτως ἔλπομαι κτλ.

So in the phrase εἴ ποτʼ ἔην γε, which means ifʼ hε lived at all, and thus is a form of asseveration; e.g. Il. 3. 180

δαὴρ αὔτʼ ἐμὸς ἔσκε κυνώπιδος εἴ ποτʼ ἔην γε
he was my brοther-in-law if hε wa anything

i. e. that he was so is as sure as that there was such a person.

γε is common with the Article (§ 257. 2) and the Personal Pronouns (so that it is usual to write ὅγε, ἔγωγε as one word), also with ὅδε, οὗτος, κεῖνος, and the corresponding Adverbs ὥδε, τότε, etc. It serves chiefly to bring out the contrast which these Pronouns more or less distinctly imply. Similarly with words implying comparison, as ἄλλος and ἕτερος, πρίν, πάρος, etc. When a special emphasis is intended, Homer usually employs περ.

Od. Il. 5ς οὐδέ νυ σοί περ ἐντρέπεται φίλον ἦτορ
not even are you moved (who are especially bound to care for Odysseus).

So too, as Nauck has pointed out (Mél. gr.-rom. iv. 501), πάρος γε means before (not now), while πάρος περ means even before (not merely now). Hence in Il. 13. 465

ὅς σε πάρος γε γαμβρὸς ἐὼν ἔθρεψε

the γε of the MSS. is right; and so we should read (with A. against other MSS.).

Il. 17. 587 ὃς τὸ πάρος γε μαλθακὸς αἶκμητής

but (again with A) in IL. 15. 256

ὅς σε πάρος περ ῥύομαι.

In a Conditional Protasis (with ὅς, ὅτε, εἰ, 8xc.), γε emphasizes the condition as such.; hence εἴ γε if only, always supposing that. Cp. Od. 2. 31

ᾖν χʼ ὑμῖν σάφα εἴποι, οτε πρότερός γε πύθοιτο
which he would tell you, if and when he had been first to hear it.

On the other hand, εἴ περ means supposing ever so much, hence if really (Latin si quidem). So when πρίν expresses a condition (§ 297) it takes γε, as Il. 5. 288

πρίν γʼ ἦ ἕτερόν γε πεσόντα κτλ.