Simple Athematic Aorist

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13. The Simple Athematic Aorist. This term includes the "2nd aorists" such as ἔ-βη-ν, ἔ-στη-ν, etc., and also those so-called 1st aorists in which the -ᾰ of the 1st singular active is added directly to the verb stem, as in ἔ-χευ-α.

Variation of quantity is rare in the active, but the stem is usually shortened in the middle. The chief forms are

ἔ-βη-ν
I went

βᾰ́-την (3rd dual)1
ὑπέρ-βᾰ-σαν (3rd plural)
μετά-βηθι (imperative)
βή-μεναι (infinitive)

ἔ-στη-ν
I stood

στή-την (dual)
ἔ-στη-μεν, ἔ-στη-τε, ἔ-στη-σαν (plural)
στῆ-θι, στῆ-τε (imperative)
στή-μεναι (infinitive)

ἔ-φθη
came before

φθᾰ́-μενος (participle)

ἐξ-έ-πτη
flew out (Hes. Op. 98)

κατα-πτή-την (3rd dual)
cowered

ἔ-πτα-το (middle)
flew

ἔ-σβη
was quenched

ἔ-τλη-ν
I endured

ἔ-τλη-μεν, ἔ-τλη-τε (plural)
τλή-τω, τλῆ-τε (imperative)

ἔ-γνω-ν
I knew

γνώ-την (3rd dual)
ἔ-γνω-σαν (3rd plural)

ἐπ-έ-πλω-ς
did sail over

ἐπι-πλώς (participle)

βιώ-τω
let him live

βιῶ-ναι (infinitive)

ἁλῶ-ναι
to be taken

ἁλούς (participle)

ἔ-φθι-το
perished

κτί-μενος
built

ἔ-δῡ
sank under

ἐ-δῡ́-την (3rd dual)
ἔ-δῡ-τε (2nd plural)
δῦ-θι (imperative)
δῡ́-μεναι (infinitive)

ἔ-φῡ
grew

ἔ-φῡ-σαν (3rd plural; H. Ven. 265)

λύ-το2
was loosed

κλῦ-θι
hear

κλῦ-τε (plural)3

On the forms ἔσσῠ-το, ἔ-χῠ-το see § 15.

The vowel is invariably long in ξυμ-βλή-την the two encountered, middle βλῆ-το was struck; πλῆ-το was filled; πλῆ-το came near; ἀπ-όνη-το profited, imperative ὄνη-σο, participle ὀνή-μενος; ἄμ-πνῡ-το recovered breath; ἔ-στρω-το was strewed: see § 14.

  • 1. But also ἐ-βήτην.
  • 2. Once λῦ-το, Il. 24.1.
  • 3. Participle κλῠ́-μενος as a proper name in Homer.