Distributive Singular

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170. The wοrd ἕκαστος is often used in the Sing. with a Plural Verb, as ἔβαν οἰκόνδε ἕκαστος taeγ μwent 2ορme, eacά one, δεδμήμεσθα ἕκαστος μwe are eacθ one οbeadieant. Other words in a clause may folloςw ἕκαστος in respect of Number : as Π. 2. 775 ἵπποι δὲ παρ ἅρμασιν οἷσιν ἕκαστος tao ἄοrπes eacὰ δeςide iw cἄariοt ; ll. 9. 656 οἱ δὲ ἕκαστος ἑλὼν δέπας ἀμφικύπελλον σπείσαντες παρὰ νῆας ἴσαν πάλιν. Even the Verb is made Sing. in 7. 16. 264 οἱ δʼ ἄλκιμον ἢτορ ἔχοντες πρόσσω πᾶς πέτεται καὶ ἀμύνει οἷσι τέκεσσι : but this is a slight boldness οἱ expression.

On the same principle we may explain the Sing. in Od. 4. 300 αἱ δʼ ἴσαν ἐκ μεγάροιο δάος μετὰ χερσὶν ἔχουσαι (2π esc with a tοrcθ iπn ἄer ἄαπadς); Il. 13. 783 τετυμμένω κατὰ χεῖρα (eacὰ ῃʼ re tμwο) μκwονuπnoded la re ἄaπnd ; ll. 3. 235 οὕς κεν ἐύ γνοίην καί τʼ οὔνομα μυθησαίμην. So in Il. 17. 260 τῶν δʼ ἄλλων τίς κεν Il. Il. οὐνόματʼ εἴποι we ahold doubtless read οὔνομα (βείποι).

Similarly the Dual is used of a group of pairs.

Il. 16.370 πολλοὶ δʼ ἐν τάφρῳ ἐρυσάρματες ὠκέες ἵπποι
               ἄξαντʼ ἐν πρώτῳ ῥυμῷ λίπον ἅρματʼ ἀνάκτων

where the Dual ἄξαντε (like the Sing. ῥυμῷ) refers to οne chariot. Probably, too, we should read ἅρμα ἀνάκτων (i.e. ξανάκτων). ll. 23. 362 οἱ δʼ ἅμα πάντες ἐφʼ ἵπποιίν μάστιγας ἄειραν, Od. 20. 348 ὄσσε δʼ ἄρα σφέων δακρυόφιν πίμπλαντο, also Il. 9. 503. Od. 19.444.

The Dual is often used in this way in Aristophanes: cp. Ay. 622 ἀνατείνοντες τἄὼ χείρε, and other instances given by Bieber (re αduαὶι nιmeτο, p. 44)

In 2l. 5. 487 μή παως ἀὼς ἀφῖσι λίνου ἁλόντε πανάγρου, the Dual ἁλόντε is ex- plained by Schol. B ὁμεῖς καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες. If so, it is a distributive use : 'see that ye be not taken, man and vwife in one net.' But more probably it refers to Hector and Paris.

In speaking of the characteristics of a group or class it is common to pass from the Plural to the Singular, or νice νerςd; e.ρ. Od. 4. ὅ91 τʼ ἐστὶ δίκη θείων βασιλήων, ἄλλον κʼ ἐχθαίρῃσι βροτῶν κτλ. it is tᾶe κwαγ ῃʼ ἑiπρς, (α ἑiππρ) μκwitt ἀate οππe ἢπ.; and in the same clause, Il. 10. 259 ῥύεται δὲ κάρη θαλερῶν αἰζηῶν (of a ἑiπd of helmet); Π. 2. 355 πρίν τινα πὰρ Γρώων ἀλόχῳ κατα- κοιμηθῆναι ὁeside iRe μwge lf ποwe ἴbηὰμππ ; D. 19. 70 ἀλλά τινʼ οἴω 3ὑπʼ ἔγχεος ἡμετέροιο ὁgοτe re πρear Wʼ ο2e Wʼnς. The distri- butive τις is equivalent to a Plural.

Hence a pecαliar ναgue use of the Plural, as ll. 3. 49 νυὸν ἀνδρῶν αἰχμητάων the bride of sοme warriοrʼs sοn (lit. daughter-in-law of warriοrs, i.e. of this or that warrior); 4.142 παρήίον ἔμμεναι ἵππων (v. L ἵππῳ) ; 21.499 πληκτίζεσθʼ ἀλόχοισι Διός (less directly personal than ἀλόχῳ).