Conditional Clauses: Apodosis

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324. The secondary tenses or tenses of past time (aorist, imperfect and pluperfect), are used ςwith κεν or ἄν to express a s0pposed consequence.

Il. 4. 420 δεινὸν δʼ ἔβραχε χαλκὸς ἐπὶ στήθεσσιν ἄνακτος ὀρνυμένου· ὑπό κεν ταλασίφρονά περ δέος εἷλεν
fear wοutd ἄaνe se2edd eνen re ςtομμt-ἀearted.

Γhis way of speaking of a conditional event ordinarily implies that the condition on vwhich it depended was not fulfilled. For if (e.g.) the assertion ᾖλθεν ἄε cαρme is true, we can hardly ever have occasion to limit it by saying ἦλθεν ἄν ἀe caρme in tάat caπe. Hence a Past Γense with κεν or ἄν naturally came to be used vwhere the event in question had not happenedd, owing to the non-fulfilment of the condition.

The rule does not apply to events that occur τeρeαteάdίy, or on no particular occasion ; for there is no contradiction in saying of such an event thadt it happenedἄ vwhen a condition vwas fuliled. Hence the use in the iterαtiιe sense as

Hdt. 3. 119 κλαίεσκε ἂν καὶ ὀδυρέσκετο

Thuc. 7. 71 εἴ τινες ἴδοιεν Il. Il. ἀνεθάρσησάν τε ἂν κτλ.

This use, however, is not Homeric. In Od. 2. 104 ἔνθα κεν ἠματίη μὲν ὑφαίνεσκεν has slender authority, most MSS. reading ἕvθα καί. Another supposed instance is-

Od. 18. 263 ἴππαων τʼ ἀὡκυπόδαων ἑπιβήτορατ, οἴ κε τάχιστα ἔκριναν μέγα νεῖκος κτλ.

where the commentators (Fäsi, Ameis, Merry) take ἕκpιvαν as a 1gnomic Aorist. The vwords as they stand can only mean vwho vwould most speeddily have decided mighty strifeʼ (so Goodςwin, ὑ 244) : but this does not suit the context. The ἄificulty is best met by reading οἴ τε : cp. i 283,b. An exceptional use of a diferent kind is-

Od. 4. 546 ἡ γάρ μιν αωόν γε ιχήσεαι, ᾖ κεν ῥέκτης κτεῖνεν ὑποφθάμενος.

Here κεν marks the alternative (§ 283, n. 2): either γοῖ wίl iud in αἰιυe or (in the οher case) bτestss has kιlleά him (i.e. must ιαυe killed ιιm). Thrown into a Conditional form the sentence would be : 'if you do not indd him alive, then Orestes has killed him2 So with an infinitive-

Il. 22. 108 ἐμοὶ δὲ τότʼ ἂν πολύ κέρδιον εἴη ἄντην ἦ Ἀχιλῆα κατακτείναντα νέεσθαι ἠέ κεν αὐτῷ ὀλέσθαι ἑῦκλειῶς πρὸ πόληος.

In the Protasis κες vwith the Lndicative occurs onlgy once, vi2. Il. 23. 526 εἰ δέ aʼ ἔτι προτέραr γένετο δρόμος (see Loaf s note α. l.), This may be compared with the occasional use of κεν with εἷ and an Opt. (5 313). The rarity of the use vwith an ndic. needd not be felt as a ddifficulty : cp. the oracle in Hdt. Il. 174 ἐὺς γάρ κʼ ἔθηπε νῆσον εἴ κʼ ἐβούλετο, also Rrinna, lr. 4. 4, and At. Lγs. 1098 (Hartung. ll. p. 240).

In later Greek the Imperfect with ἄν may express either a continuous action vwhich wομίd ἄaνe οccμurτed at some past time, or an action (continuous or momentary) which wοutd ἄaνe ὁeeα οccμurτίπ9 at the moment of speaking. The alter of these uses, as Mr. Gοοdwin points oat (ἢ 435), is not Homeric. He sees an approach to it in ll. 24. 220 εἰ μὲν γάρ τίς μʼ ἄλλος ἐκέλευεν were it anγ one esc μwὰο ὁade wme. Another may be found in Od. 20. 307 καί κέ τοι ἀντὶ γάμοιο πατὴρ τάφον ἀμφεπονεῖτο ἐνθάδε (lf γόμῳ 2add ςtrνucὲ tie ςtτaπngeτ) γομuτ father wομίd ἀaυe ἄad to ὁusγ ἄiπueὴʼ ere witὰ γοκr μτiαt iπ ρίace f νweσddίπρ cp. also Od. 4. 178 καί κε θάμʼ ἐνθάδʼ ἐόντες ἐμισγόμεθʼ, οὐδέ κεν ἡμέας ἄλλ διέκρινεν.

The Impf. without ἄν or κεν may express what ονράt to 2aνe ὁeen, if the meaning of ῇftπesς, οtgatiοn, 8ic. is given by the yVerb or Predicate. Γhus we have Od. 20. 331 κέρδιον ἐν it κwομμd aνe eeπn otter. So in Attic with ἐχρὴτ, ἔδει, and similar words.

The Opt. with ἄν or κεν, as we have seen (ἡ 300, c), is not un- frequently used in Homer with the same meaning as the Aor. or hmpf ςwith ἄν has in later Greek. Γhis is one of the points in which the use of the ndicative gained on that of the Optative.