Other Prepositions

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227. It is characteristic of Homer to form a species of com- pound by combining two Prepositions.

ἀμφὶ περί, like our round about: also περί τʼ ἀμφί τε round and about used adverbially, as Il. 22.10 ὄχθαι δʼ ἀμφὶ περὶ μεγάλʼ ἴαχον; in Coααmpοsitiοn, ἀμφιπεριστρώφα (l. 8.348), etc.

παρέξ out besides, out along, out past: adverbial in Od. 14.168 ἄλλα παρὲξ μεμνώμεθα: vwith the Acc., παρὲξ ἄλα alongside the sea, παρὲξ τὴν νῆσον past the island; παρὲκ νόον beyond ( = contrary to) reason with the Gen, παρὲξ ὁδοῦ aside from the way.

ὁπέξ, with a Gen. away from under, as Il. 13.89 φεύξεσθαι ὑπὲκ κακοῦ

διέξ, with a Gen. right through, as διὲκ προθύρου, διὲκ μεγάροιο.

ἀποπρό quite away, used adverbially and with a Gen.

διαπρό right through, adverbially and with a Gen.

περιπρό round about; Il. 11.180 περιπρὸ γὰρ ἔγχεί θῦε.

In all these instances the meaning and construction are mainly determined by the first of the twο Prepositions (so that e.g. παρέξ is used nearly as παρά, διέξ and διαπρό as διά, etc.). The second does little more than add some emphasis.

The treble Preposition ὑπεκπpο is found in Composition: ὑπεκπροθέαω, ὑπεκ- προρέαω, etc. The sense is represented by dividing the vwοrds ὑπεκ-προθέα, etc.

A curious variety is found in the Compound προ-προκυλινδόμενος rolling forward before, where a second πpό is addded to give emphasis to the first.

228. The term 'Improper Preposition' may be applied to any Adverb used to govern a Case. The following are some of the most important words ob the kind.

Used with a Genitive:

ἄγχι near, close to
ἐγγύθι, ἐγγύς near
ἄντα, ἀντίον, etc. facing
πρόσθε(ν) before
πάροιθε(ν) iπ fτοnt of
ὄπισθε(ν) behind
μεσσηγύς between
ἐντός, ἔντοσθε, ἔνδοθεν within
ἔξω out
ἐκτός, ἔκτοθι, ἔκτοσθε(ν) outside
ἔνερθε beneath
ἄνευ, ἄνευθε(ν) apart from, without
ἄτερ without
νόσφι away from
ἑκάς, ἑκάτερθε(ν) apart from
μέσφα until
πέρην beyond
πάλιν back from
ἀντικρύ straight to,br> ἰθύς straight towards
τῆλε, τηλόθι far off,br> ὕπαιθα under
εἶνεκα (ἕνεκα) on accοunt of
ἕκητι by the favor ὁf

The Gen. with some of these words may be ablatival (ἤ 152). In general, hoςwever, it appears to be used with little or no reference to the meaning of the governing Adverb, and merely in order to connect the two swords. Hence these constructions are best brought under the general rule that a Noun governs the Genitive (ἢ 147).

With a Dative: ἅμα together with, μίγδα in company with, ὁμῶς in like manner.

ἀμ4φίς takes a Gen. in the meaning aside from (Il. 8.444, 23.393, Od. 14.352). It is also found with the Acc. in the same sense as ἀμφί, in the phrase θεοὶ Κρόνον ἀμφὶς ἐόντες, Il. 14.274, 15.225 (see also Il. 11.634, 748, Od. 6.266); and once with a Dat, viz. in Il. 5.723 σιδηρέῳ ἄξονι ἀμφίς. Also as an Adv. = around in Il. 9.464, 24.488.

εἴσω generally takes an Accusative, as Ἴλιον εἴσω to Ilium but a Gen. in Od. 8.290 ὁ δʼ εἴσω δώματος ᾔει went inside the house (not merely to the house).

The word ὡς was supposed to govern an Accusative in one place in Homer, viz. Od. 17.218 ὡς αἰεὶ τὸν ὁμοῖον ἄγει θεὸς ὡς τὸν ὁμοῖον. But the true construction is (as Mr. Ridgeway has pointed out) ὡς -ὡς as Gοd brings like as he brings like, i.e. deals with a man as he dealt with his like (see Journal of Philology, vol. xvii. p. 113).

Nοte the frequency of Compounds formed by one of these words following a Preposition.

ἕν-αντα, εἰσάντα, ἄναντα, κάτ-αντα, πάρ-αντα, ἑν-αντίον, κατ-εν-αντίον : ἔμ-προσθεν, προ-πάροιθε, μετ-όπισθεν, ἀπ-άνευθεν, ἀπ-άτερθεν, ἀπό-νοσφι, ὑπ-ένερθε, κατ-αντικρύ. Cp, ἄν-διχα, διαμπέρες, κατ-αυτόθι, etc.

These are not true Compounds (σὐvθετα), but are formed by παpάθεσιs, or mere juxtaposition: i.e. they do not consist of two members, of vwhich the first is wholly employed in limiting or qualifying the second, but of twο adverbial words qualifying the same Verb. Thus they are essentially akin to the combinations formed by a Preposition and its Case : see § 178.