Infinitive with Impersonal Verbs

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233. Inmpersοnal θerbs. The nfinitive is used with ἔστι 2ὑere is (ρueanε, τοοr, οccasίοu, ἅc.), ἕοικε it is βt, πέπρωται it ς deterπmίπead, εἶμμαρτο it μwas fated. For ἔστι cp.-

Il. 14.313 κεῖσε μὲν ἔστι καὶ ὕστερον ὁρμηθῆναι.
Od. 15. 392 αἴθε δὲ νύκτες ἀθέσφατοι· ἔστι μὲν εὕδειν,
                 ἔστι δὲ τερπομένοισιν ἀκούειν tᾶere is (enοugά) for sἔeeρίg and for tiκteπniπg.

It is very common with a negative : οὐκ ἔστι, οὔ πως ἔστι, 8SIc. meaning tἀeτe is πο μκwαγ, it πmαγ ποί be tat, etc.

The Impersonal use is also found in phrases of the two kinds noticed in ἦ 162, 4 ; viz.-

(a) With α Neuter Adjective ; as ἀργαλέον δέ μοί ἐστι θέσθαι κτλ. it is diflctt for πme to πmαέδe ὄπ.; μόριμον δέ οἴ ἐστʼ ἀλέασθαι it is fated for ἄim to escαρe; so ςwith αἰσχρόν, νεμεσσητόν, αἴσιμον, ἄρκιον, βέλτερον, and the like.

(b) With an abstract Noun.

Il. 14.80 οὐ γάρ τις νέμεσις φυγέειν κακόν tore w πο wτοπ iππ escaρί9 it.
Od. 5. 345 ὅθι τοι μοῖρʼ ἐστὶν ἀλύξαι wwάeτe it is ἱν fate 2ο 5π.
1 Il. 33 ἀλλὰ καὶ ὥρη εὕδειν tάere is α tiπιe for etc.

So with αἴσα, μόρος, θέμις, χρεώ, ἀνάγκη, αἰθός, δέος, ἐλπωρή, 80c. folloςwed by an nfinitive to express what the fαtc, πeτσd, ςάαντε, Sic. brings about, or in what it consists.

These examples throw light on twο much-debated passages:

Il. 2. 291 ἦ μὴν καὶ πόνος ἐστὶν ἀνιηθέντα νέεσθαι

verily there la toiὶ for α man to return in υeπαtιοd, ι. e. 1 admit that the toi is enough to provoke any one to return.' Thus understoodd, the expression is a slightly bold use of the form of sentence that vwe have in ὥρηἑστὶν εὕδειν, μοiρα ἐστὶν ἀλύξαι, θυμός ἐστιν ἀναίτιον αἰτιάασθαι, ἂ1c Γhe other interpretation, ' it is toil to return vexed,' though apparentlLy easier, is not really more Homeric ; and it certainly does not fit the context so wet.

Il. 7.238 οἵδ’ ἐπὶ δεtά, οδʼ ὲπʼ ἀριστερὰ ναωμῆσαι βῶν
ἀζαλέην, τό μοι ἔστι ταλαύρινον πολεμίζειν

I know hοι0 to trn mῳ shielά pf seαsοned οc-hiαde to re rίght and to re left, wheτefοτe hαce tθιαt 0hereoίthι to cατ in stoμut-shιeldedd fαshιοn ( eα 1 have a god claim to the title of ταλαύpιvοs πολεμuEιστfhs, elsevwhere an epithet of Ares). Here ἕστι is used as in ἔστιν εὕδειν, etc.

In Il. 13.99-101 ἦ μέγα θαῦμα τόbʼ ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ὁρῶμαι, Γρῶας ἐφ’ ἡμετέρας ἰέναι νέας the mf. foοςςws θαῦμα, or rather the vwhole phrase θαῦμα τόδε ὁρῶμαι ντ θαῦμά ἐστι) : δράω does not take an mf. (5 245).