ϝ not initial

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396. The metrical tests by which initial ϝ is discovered generally fail us when the sound occurs in the midddle of a word. Loss of f may be shown either (1) by the contraction or synizesis of tςwo voςwels originally separated by it, or (2) by the shortening of the first of two such vowels. VWa have seen that the instances of contraction and synizesis are tοο rare or doubtful to prove much (ἢ 378a, 4). The cases in which hiatus is indicated by the shortening of a vowel are some- what more important. In the declension of νηῦς the forms νεός, νέες, νεῶν, νέεσσι, νέας (ἢ 94, 1) cannot be derived phonetically from νηfός, 8ʼc., unless vwe suppose loss ob Γ to have taken place. The same applies to the double forms of Nouns in -ὗς, as Πηλῆος and Πηλέος, 8c. Unless the short vοςwel is explained on some other hypothesis (e.ῃ. by variation in the stem, as in Ζεύς and βοῦς, ἦ 106, 2), we must suppose that f had ceased to be sounded in the middle of a sword. The loss of F would also explain the metathesis of quantty in ἕως for ος in Od. 2. 79 (see ἡ 171, 1), τέως for τῆος in ll. 19. 189 αὔθι τέως ἐπειγόμενος (where G. Her. man read αὐτοῦ τῆος), ll. 24. 658, Od. 18, 190 : bat this, as these instances show, is even rareρ than syni2esis in these swords, and is almost certainly post-Homeric.

Compound Verbs usually recognize , as ἀπο-ειπάν, δια-ειπέμεν, also with apocope παρ-ειπάν (ἄ), ic. Exceptions are : ἀπ-ειπέμεν (Od. 1, 91 ), ἀπ-ειπόντος (l. 19. 75), δίειπε (l. 10. 425), πρ-είπῃ (l. Il. 555) : κατείρυσται (Od. 8. 151., 14- 332., 19. 289) : ἐσ-ίδεσκε, ἑσ-ιδέσθην, ἐσ-ιδοῦσα, ἐκκατ-ιδάν, ἑπ-ιδόντα : ἑπ-έοικε (1 1 places) : ὑπείξομαι (. Il. 294, Od. 12. 117). n some of these forms metrical necessity may be pleaded ; thus ἑπι-έFοικε and ἐπ-έFοικε, κατα- 2ʼιδάσ and κατ-Sιδάν (- - ) are alike impossible in the hexameter. Hence vwe may suppose a license by which (as in the case of φp, 8ρ, etc. i 370) the combinations v, rF, πF, did not "make Position." The instances to which this excuse does not apply are very few.

On the other hand there are several examples of swords in which f betςween two voςwels, or between a vowel and a liquid (ρ or λ), is νοcatisedd as υ; αὐίαχοι (ἀ-ίξαχοι), αὐέρυον, ἀγαυός, ταλαύρινος (ταλά-fρινος), εὔαδε, ἔχευα, ἀλεύασθαι, δεύομαι, εὔληρα, ἀπούρας (ἢ 13), ἀκουή. Ti is very possible that many more sαch forms were to be found in the original text: cp. ἡ 384. 1.