Infinitive as Imperative

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241. This use is often found in Homer, but chicly after an Imperative, so that the nfinitive serves to carry on the command already given :- Il. Il. 322 ἔρχεσθον κλισίην Ἀγαμέμνονος Ἀτρείδαο, χειρὸς ἑλόντʼ ἀγέμεν Βρισηίδα. 2. 8-10 βάσκʼ ἴθι Il. Il. ἀγορευέμεν ὡς ἐπιτέλλω. 3- 459 ἔκδοτε, καὶ τιμὴν ἀποτινέμεν. Od. 4. 415 καὶ τότʼ ἔπειθʼ ὑμῖν μελέτω κάρτος τε βίη τε, αθι δʼ ἔχειν κτλ. (cp. τ. 419, 422 f.). Or after a Future, to express ςwhat the person addressed is to do as ἀi part in a set of acts :- D. 22. 259 νεκρὸν Ἀχαιοῖσιν δώσω πάλιν, ὡς δὲ σὺ ῥέζειν. Od. 4. 408 εὐνάσω ἑξείης· σὺ δʼ ἐ9 κρίνασθαι ἑταίρους. So after a clause which cads up to a command ; ll. 11. 788 ἀλλʼ εὕ οἱ φάσθαι (Achilles is the mightier) bnut do γοᾷ adνiςe ἄiρι welt2 17. 691, 20- 335. Cp. also, ll. 10. 65 αὔθι μένειν (answer to the question aρm to τeρmaκ ere f) : 5. 1 24 θαρσέων νῦν Il. Il. μάχεσθαι (in answer to a prayer) μwitᾶονut fear ποκσ γοr πππmαγ ρὰt. The use for the Γhirdd Person is rare: in a cορuρmαnd, Il. 6. 86-92 εἰπὲ δʼ ἔπειτα μητέρι σῇ καὶ ἐμῇ· ἡ δὲ Il. Il. θεῖναι κτλ.; 7. 79 σῶμα δὲ οἴκαδʼ ἐμὸν δόμεναι πάλιν (et him take my arms) ὁut giνe ὁαcὲ πdγ ὁοdν; so 17. 155, 23- 247, Od. 11. 443 : iμm α ρτdγeτ, ςwith a Subject in the Accusative,-H. 2. 412 Ζεῦ κύδιστε, μέγιστε, κελαινεφές, αἰθέρι ναίων, μὴ πρὶν ἐπʼ ἠέλιον δῦναι κτλ. (0p. 3. 285, 7. 179). Od. 17. 354 εῦ ἄνα, Γηλέμαχόν μοι ἐν ἀνδράσιν ὄλβιον εἶναι. An nfinitive of wish is used with the Subjec5 in the Nom., once of the Second Person, and once of the First Person :- Od. 7. 311 αἱ γὰρ Ζεῦ τε πάτερ καὶ Ἀθηναίη καὶ Ἄπολλον τοῖος ἐὼν οἷός ἐσσι, τά τε φρονέων ἄ τʼ ἐγώ περ, παῖδά τʼ ἐμὴν ἐχέμεν καὶ ἐμὸς γαμβρὸς καλέεσθαι. 24. 376 αἱ γὰρ Il. Il. οἷος Νήρικον εἷλον .. τοῖος ἐὼν .. ἐφεστά- μεναι καὶ ἀμύνειν. Γhe force of the nfinitive in all these uses seems to be that ob an iπndirect Imperative. The command is given as something fοίίοwing on an expressed or implied state of things. Γhus we may connect the idiom ςwith the use of the nfinitive to imply itπesς, οbttαtiοn, 8xdc. (ἢ 231); compare εἰσὶ καὶ οἵδε τάδʼ εἰπέμεν lese are ἀere to saγ ἰὰς with καὶ δὲ σὺ εἰπέμεναι it is γοuτ part to 2αγ. There is a similar use of the Infinitive in Sanscrit, ςwith ellipse of the verb to ὁe (Delbruck, d. θ. p. 15: Whitney, ἡ 982, Ti should be noticed, however, that other languages have developed a use of the nfinitive in commands, to which this explanation does not apply : as Germ. schrιtt fαhτen 7 Tm these cases vwe may recognise a general tendency towards the impersonal form. It is very probable that the ordinary 2 Sing. hmper. λέγε represents an original use of the Γense-stem vwithout any Persοn- ending (haul, τιncιρίεα, p. 108).