Numerals

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130. Although the Numerals are not properly to be counted as 'Nouns' it will be convenient to notice here the chief peculiarities of formation which they exhibit.

  1. There are two Fem. forms for εἴς, vi2. μία and ἴα; also a Neat. Dat. ἰῷ (IU. 6. 422). Tho Stem ἀ- (for g-) in ἄ-παξ, ἅ-πλοος, 8Sc. is to be regarded as a vweak form ob the Stem ἑν- (αρ). The weak form ςπm- is to be traced in μία, for σμ-ιᾶ.
  2. The forms δόο and δόω are equally common in Homer. For the number 12 we find the three forms δυώδεκα, δώδεκα, and δυοκαίδεκα; also the Ordinals δυωδέκατος and (rarely) δωδέκατος.
  3. Besides τέσσαρ-2ς there is a form πίσυρ-ες, applied to horses in ll. 15. 680 and 23. 171, to other objects in D. 24. 233 and three times in the Odyssey (5. 70, 15. 249, 22. 111).

    The Stem τετρᾶ- appears in the Dat. τέτρα-σι, also in the Ordinal (τέτρα-τος and τέταρ-τος), and most derivatives, as τετρά-κις, τετρα-χθά, τετρά-φαλος fοuτ-crestead, ρc.(butcp. τεσσαρά- βοιος κwοrt fομτ ονen) : also ςwith loss of the first syllable in τρά-πεζα.

    The variation in the Stem of this Mumeral has been fuly discussedd by Jot. Schmidt(d. S. xxv. p. 47 lf.). He shοvws that the Stem had three forms (5 114a). The strong form is seen in Sanscr. cαtἄταs, vwhich vwοuuldd eadd us to expect Greek aτετῶρες (hence perhaps Dot. τέτορες) ; the vweakest ira the Sanscr. Ordinal tμuriῳα, for kturiῳα, in vwhich the shortening affects both syllables, and the first is consequently lost. This vweakest Stem appears in τρυ-φάλεια αfοr- τιάάged helwmet, and is not derived from the form τετ0S-. t probably fel into disuse ovwing to its unlikeness to τέσσαpεs ; accorddingly it has only survived in vwords in vwhich the meaning fourb had ceased to be felt. The form πίσυρες may be akin to Lesbian πέσσυρες or πέσυρες, but there is no decisive ground for regarding it as Aeolic.

  4. ὀκτώ, like δύω, is a Dual in form. The primitive ending -ωυυ (Sanscr. aςἀtάμu) may be traced in ὄγδοος (ὄγδωf-ος, ὄγδωος, Luνt. οctάνua).
  5. Under ἐννέα note the varieties ἔνα-τος and εἴνα-τος πίπtὰ, probably for ἐνβα-τος; so εἰνά-κις, εἰνά-νυχες, εἰνά-ετες; also ἐνν- ῆμαρ (for ἐννέ-ημαρ), ἐννέ-ωρος ὁfΓ πiπe seακοnπ, ἐννήκοντα (for ἐννε- ήκοντα, cp. τρι-ήκοντα, 8c.) and ἐνενήκοντα-the last a form diffi- cult to explain.

    The numbers above ten are generally denoted by Compounds of the kind called Copulatiνe (Sanscr. dναππdνα): δυώ-δεκα twο and ten.

    The analogy of the Numerals ending in -ά (ἑπτά, δέκα, with the Stems τετρᾶ-, εἰνἄ-) has led to the use of ἄ as a connecting voςwel in Numerals generally ; hence πεντά-ετες and ἑξά-ετες (Od. 3. 1 15), ὀκτά-κνημος, τεσσαρά-βοιος, ἐεικοσά-βοιος. But in- versely ο is found for ἀἄ in πεντηκοντόγυος (l. 9. 579); cp. ἦ 124.a.