Secondary Suffixes

Book Nav

main

117. The following are the chief secondary or "denominative" suffixes. (Note that -ο and -η of the primitive stem disappear before secondary suffixes beginning with a vοwel.1)

-ιο, -ιη

  • δίκα-ιο-ς
    just
     
  • ἀρμον-ίη
    a joining
     
  • ἄρθμ-ιο-ς
    friendly
     
  • αἰδοῖο-ς (for αἰδοτ-ιο-ς)
    reverenced
     
  • γελοίίο-ς2
    laughable
     
  • ὥρ-ιο-ς
    in seasοn
     
  • σοφ-ίη
    skill
     
  • σκοπ-ιή
    watch
     
  • ἀνα-κα-ίη
    necessity

-ειο, -εο: chiefly used to denote material, especially the animal which furnishes the material of a thing.

  • ἵππ-ειο-ς
  • ταύρ-ειο-ς
  • αἴγ-ειο-ς
  • βό-ειο-ς and βό-εο-ς
  • κυν-έη
  • χάλκ-ειο-ς and χάλκ-εο-ς
  • κυάν-εο-ς
  • δουράτ-εο-ς
  • φλόγ-εο-ς
  • ἠγάθ-εο-ς (from ἀγαθό-ς)
  • δαιδάλ-εο-ς, etc.

These must be distinguished from the adjectives in which ειο stands for εσ-ιο, as τέλειο-ς (for τελεσ-ιο-ς), ὀνείδειο-ς, Ἀργεῖο-ς.

-ευ

ἱππ-εύ-ς
horseman

ἀριστ-εύ-ς
one who does best

Also, χαλκ-εύ-ς, ἱερ-εύ-ς, νομ-εύ-ς, Σμινθ-εύ-ς, etc., all from nouns in -ο.

-ῐδη, -ιαδη, ιn patronymics.

Ἀτρε-ΐδη-ς

Πηλη-ϊάδη-ς

Ἀσκληπι-άδη-ς

Cp. the compound -ιδ-ιος (§ 118).

-ρο, -ερο

λιγυ-ρό-ς
shrill

δνοφ-ερός
dark

μέγαρον

-ῐμο

ἀοίδ-ιμο-ς
matter of song

μόρ-ιμο-ς
fated, etc.

-νο, -ῐνο

φαεινός (φαεσ-)
shining

ἐρεβεννός (ἐρεβεσ-)
dark

ἐραννός
lovely

φήγ-ινο-ς
oaken

εἰαρ-ινό-ς
of spring, etc.

-ῑνο

ὀπωρ-ῑνός
of autumn

ἀγχιστ-ῖνος

-ηνο: πετε-ηνός flying (πετ-εσ-)

-σῠνο, -σῠνη

γηθό-συνο-ς
joyful

ἱππο-σύνη
horsemanship, etc.

-εντ (for -ϝεντ), feminine -εσσᾰ.

ὑλή-εντ-α, fem. ὑλή-εσσ-α
wooded

δινή-εντ-α
full of eddies

λειριό-εντ-α
like the lily, etc.

-ῐκο: only found in ὀρφαν-ικός orphan, παρθεν-ική virgin, and a few adjectives from proper names, as Τρω-ϊκό-ς, Ἀχαι-ϊκό-ς,
Πελασγ-ικό-ς. In these words it is evident that there is no approach to the later meaning of the suffix.

-τη

  • ναύ-τη-ς
     
  • ἱππό-τα
     
  • τοξό-τα (vοc.)
     
  • ἀγρό-ται
     
  • αἰχμητή-ς
     
  • κορυνή-τη-ς
     
  • ὑπηνή-τη-ς
     
  • πολιή-τη-ς and πολί-τη-ς
     
  • ὁδί-τη-ς

Some of these are perhaps primitive: e. g. αἰχμη-τή-ς may come from an obsolete *αἰχμάω to wield the spear: see § 120.

-τητ

φιλό-τητ-α
love

δηϊο-τῆτ-α
battle

-ιγγ

  • φόρμιγξ
    a lyre
     
  • σύριγξ
    a reed pipe
     
  • σάλπιγξ
    a trumpet
     
  • λάϊγγ-ες
    pebbles
     
  • στροφάλιγξ
    eddy
  • ῥαθάμιγγ-ες
    drops

The -ῐ of -ιδη, -ιμο,-ινο, -ικο was probably not part of the original suffix, but was the final vowel of the stem. We may either suppοse (e.g.) that μόρ-ι-μος was formed directly from a stem μορ-ι (cp. μοῖρα for μορι̯ᾰ), or that it follοwed the analogy of ἄλκι-μος, φύξι-μος, etc. Cp. the account given in § 109 of the ᾰ of -ακις. It is remarkable that ο, which is regular as a "connecting vοwel" of compounds, is extremely rare before suffixes (except -τη, -τητ, -συνο).

Nοte that the -εϊ- of the patronymics Aτρε-ΐδης, Πηλε-ΐδης, etc. does not become a diphthong in Homer.

Of the use of secondary suffixes to form diminutives there is no trace in Homer. It may be noted here as another difference between Homeric and later Greek that the verbals in -τέος are entirely post-Homeric.

118. Compound Suffixes. There are some remarkable instances in Homer of a secondary amalgamating with a primary suffix.

-ᾰλ-εο

  • ἀζ-αλέο-ς
    dry
     
  • ἀργ-αλέο-ς (for ἀλγ-αλέο-ς)
    painful
     
  • θαρσ-αλέο-ς
     
  • καρφ-αλέο-ς
     
  • κερδαλέο-ς
     
  • λευγ-αλέο-ς
     
  • μυδ-αλέο-ς
     
  • ῥωγ-αλέο-ς
     
  • σμερδ-αλέο-ς

It is used as a secondary suffix in λεπτ-αλέο-ς thin, ὀπτ-αλέο-ς rοast.

-ᾰλ-ιμο

κῡδ-άλιμο-ς
glorious

καρπ-άλιμο-ς
swift

πευκ-άλιμο-ς
shrewd

-εινο (for -εσ-ινο or -εσ-νο)

φα-εινό-ς
shining

αἰπ-εινό-ς
lofty

ἀλεγ-εινό-ς
painful

Secondary in ἐρατ-εινό-ς, κελαδ-εινό-ς, ποθ-εινό-ς. This suffix takes the form -εννο in ἀργ-εννό-ς shining and ἐρεβ-εννό-ς murky.

-δ-ιο, -ιδ-ιο, -αδ-ιο

στά-διο-ς

ἀμφά-διος

σχε-δίη (σχε-δό-ν)

παν-συ-δίη

Also as a secondary suffix in κουρίδιος, μαψ-ιδίως, ῥη-ΐδιος, ἐπινεφρ-ίδιον; κρυπτ-άδιος, διχθ-άδιος, μινυνθ-άδιος.

-δ-ον

τηκε-δόν-ι (Dat.)
wasting

ἀηδών
nightengale

-δωνη in μελε-δῶναι cares.

-δ-ᾰνο, in ῥιγε-δανός (horrible), ἠπεδανός, πευκεδανός, οὐτιδανός.

118* Suffixes of Different Periods. In the great variety of suffixes discovered by the analysis of the Greek noun it is important to distinguish those which are "living" in the periοd of the language with which we are concerned, and those which only survive in words handed from an earlier period. Thus in Homer the oldest and simplest suffixes, as -ο, -ι, -υ, -εσ, -ασ, -εν, -ερ, -ϝο, evidently belong to the latter class. They are no longer capable of being used to form new words, because they are no longer separable in meaning from the stems to which they are attached. On the other hand the nouns in -μο-ς, -μων, -μα, -τηρ, τρο-ν, -σι-s, τυ-ς, and the denominatives in -ιο-ς, -ερο-s, -ινο-ς, -τη-ς, etc., are felt as derivatives, and consequently their number can be indefinitely increased by new coinage. Again the use of a suffix may be restricted to some purpose which represents only part of its original usage. Thus -τη ceased, as we have seen, to form abstract nouns, but was largely used to form masculine Nouns of the Agent. So too the suffix -δο, -δη survived in two isolated uses, (1) in adverbs in -δο-ν, -δη-ν and (2) in patronymics. Compare in Latin the older use of -tus in the adjectives cautus, certus, etc., with the living use in amā-tus, etc. Sometimes too a suffix dies out in its original form, but enters into some combination which remains in vigor. Thus -νο survives in the form -ινο, and in -εινο (-εσ-νο).

The distinction of primary and secondary suffixes is evidently one which grew up by degrees, as the several forms came to be limited to different uses. In this limitation and assignment of functions it is probable that the original meaning of the suffix seldom had any direct influence.3 The difference between the suffixes of the twο great classes is mainly one of period. The elements which go to form them are ultimately much the same, but the primary suffixes represent on the whole earlier strata of formation.

  • 1. This is probably not the result of an elision, but analogous to the weakening of a suffix (cp. § 114.1). Thus the stem of σοφό-ς, vocative σοφέ, is related to the form σοφ- (in σοφ-ίη) as πάτερ to πατρ- in πατρ-ός, πάτρ-ιος (Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 59. p. 102).
  • 2. Probably to be written γελώ-ῖο-ς.
  • 3. On this point see Brugmann (Grundr. ii. § 57, p. 99). It will be seen that he gives no countenance to the view (which has been put forward in Germany and elsewhere) that the suffixes were originally without meaning.