117. The following are the chief secondary or "denominative" suffixes. (Note that -ο and -η of the primitive stem disappear before secondary suffixes beginning with a vοwel.1)
- αἰδοῖο-ς (for αἰδοτ-ιο-ς)
-ειο, -εο: chiefly used to denote material, especially the animal which furnishes the material of a thing.
- βό-ειο-ς and βό-εο-ς
- χάλκ-ειο-ς and χάλκ-εο-ς
- ἠγάθ-εο-ς (from ἀγαθό-ς)
- δαιδάλ-εο-ς, etc.
These must be distinguished from the adjectives in which ειο stands for εσ-ιο, as τέλειο-ς (for τελεσ-ιο-ς), ὀνείδειο-ς, Ἀργεῖο-ς.
one who does best
Also, χαλκ-εύ-ς, ἱερ-εύ-ς, νομ-εύ-ς, Σμινθ-εύ-ς, etc., all from nouns in -ο.
-ῐδη, -ιαδη, ιn patronymics.
Cp. the compound -ιδ-ιος (§ 118).
matter of song
of spring, etc.
-ηνο: πετε-ηνός flying (πετ-εσ-)
-εντ (for -ϝεντ), feminine -εσσᾰ.
ὑλή-εντ-α, fem. ὑλή-εσσ-α
full of eddies
like the lily, etc.
-ῐκο: only found in ὀρφαν-ικός orphan, παρθεν-ική virgin, and a few adjectives from proper names, as Τρω-ϊκό-ς, Ἀχαι-ϊκό-ς,
Πελασγ-ικό-ς. In these words it is evident that there is no approach to the later meaning of the suffix.
- τοξό-τα (vοc.)
- πολιή-τη-ς and πολί-τη-ς
Some of these are perhaps primitive: e. g. αἰχμη-τή-ς may come from an obsolete *αἰχμάω to wield the spear: see § 120.
a reed pipe
The -ῐ of -ιδη, -ιμο,-ινο, -ικο was probably not part of the original suffix, but was the final vowel of the stem. We may either suppοse (e.g.) that μόρ-ι-μος was formed directly from a stem μορ-ι (cp. μοῖρα for μορι̯ᾰ), or that it follοwed the analogy of ἄλκι-μος, φύξι-μος, etc. Cp. the account given in § 109 of the ᾰ of -ακις. It is remarkable that ο, which is regular as a "connecting vοwel" of compounds, is extremely rare before suffixes (except -τη, -τητ, -συνο).
Nοte that the -εϊ- of the patronymics Aτρε-ΐδης, Πηλε-ΐδης, etc. does not become a diphthong in Homer.
Of the use of secondary suffixes to form diminutives there is no trace in Homer. It may be noted here as another difference between Homeric and later Greek that the verbals in -τέος are entirely post-Homeric.
Note— Adjectives in -ιος are often used with some of the meaning of a comparative, i. e. in words which imply a contrast between two sides, as in
- ἠοῖος or ἠέριος
(as opposed to dry land)
(as opposed to north and east)
The suffix serves to form a kind of softened superlative in ἐσχάτιος and ὑστάτος, literally "of the last" and the same analogy yields ὁσσάτιος from ὅσσος a formation like Latin quantulus. The comparative force of -ιος -ι̯ος in the pronouns is noticed by Brugmann (see § 114, p.101)
118. Compound Suffixes. There are some remarkable instances in Homer of a secondary amalgamating with a primary suffix.
- ἀργ-αλέο-ς (for ἀλγ-αλέο-ς)
It is used as a secondary suffix in λεπτ-αλέο-ς thin, ὀπτ-αλέο-ς rοast.
-εινο (for -εσ-ινο or -εσ-νο)
Secondary in ἐρατ-εινό-ς, κελαδ-εινό-ς, ποθ-εινό-ς. This suffix takes the form -εννο in ἀργ-εννό-ς shining and ἐρεβ-εννό-ς murky.
-δ-ιο, -ιδ-ιο, -αδ-ιο
Also as a secondary suffix in κουρίδιος, μαψ-ιδίως, ῥη-ΐδιος, ἐπινεφρ-ίδιον; κρυπτ-άδιος, διχθ-άδιος, μινυνθ-άδιος.
-δωνη in μελε-δῶναι cares.
-δ-ᾰνο, in ῥιγε-δανός (horrible), ἠπεδανός, πευκεδανός, οὐτιδανός.
118* Suffixes of Different Periods. In the great variety of suffixes discovered by the analysis of the Greek noun it is important to distinguish those which are "living" in the periοd of the language with which we are concerned, and those which only survive in words handed from an earlier period. Thus in Homer the oldest and simplest suffixes, as -ο, -ι, -υ, -εσ, -ασ, -εν, -ερ, -ϝο, evidently belong to the latter class. They are no longer capable of being used to form new words, because they are no longer separable in meaning from the stems to which they are attached. On the other hand the nouns in -μο-ς, -μων, -μα, -τηρ, τρο-ν, -σι-s, τυ-ς, and the denominatives in -ιο-ς, -ερο-s, -ινο-ς, -τη-ς, etc., are felt as derivatives, and consequently their number can be indefinitely increased by new coinage. Again the use of a suffix may be restricted to some purpose which represents only part of its original usage. Thus -τη ceased, as we have seen, to form abstract nouns, but was largely used to form masculine Nouns of the Agent. So too the suffix -δο, -δη survived in two isolated uses, (1) in adverbs in -δο-ν, -δη-ν and (2) in patronymics. Compare in Latin the older use of -tus in the adjectives cautus, certus, etc., with the living use in amā-tus, etc. Sometimes too a suffix dies out in its original form, but enters into some combination which remains in vigor. Thus -νο survives in the form -ινο, and in -εινο (-εσ-νο).
The distinction of primary and secondary suffixes is evidently one which grew up by degrees, as the several forms came to be limited to different uses. In this limitation and assignment of functions it is probable that the original meaning of the suffix seldom had any direct influence.3 The difference between the suffixes of the twο great classes is mainly one of period. The elements which go to form them are ultimately much the same, but the primary suffixes represent on the whole earlier strata of formation.
- 1. This is probably not the result of an elision, but analogous to the weakening of a suffix (cp. § 114.1). Thus the stem of σοφό-ς, vocative σοφέ, is related to the form σοφ- (in σοφ-ίη) as πάτερ to πατρ- in πατρ-ός, πάτρ-ιος (Brugmann, Grundr. ii. § 59. p. 102).
- 2. Probably to be written γελώ-ῖο-ς.
- 3. On this point see Brugmann (Grundr. ii. § 57, p. 99). It will be seen that he gives no countenance to the view (which has been put forward in Germany and elsewhere) that the suffixes were originally without meaning.