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338. The Particle ᾖ at the beginning of a sentence gives it the character of a strong affirmation.

Il. 1. 240 ἦ ποτʼ Ἀχιλλῆος ποθὴ ἵξεται
be sure that one dαy, etc.

So, with an ironical tone-

Il. 1. 229 ἦ πολὺ λώίόν ἐστι κατὰ στρατὸν εὐρὺν Ἀχαιῶν δῶρʼ ἀποαιρεῖσθαι κτλ.

It is often used interrogative, especially in questions of surprise indignation, irony, etc.

Il. 2. 229 ἦ ἔτι καὶ χρυσοῦ ἐπιδεύεαι κτλ.

Il. 15. 504 ἦ ἔλπεσθʼ ἢν νῆας ἔλῃ. κορυθαίολοςς Ἕκτωρ ἐμβαδὸν ἵξεσθαι κτλ.
(do yοu really hope, etc.).

Od. 3. 312 ἦ οὐχ λίς ὡς κτλ.
(is it not . . ?

= surely it is)

cp. § 358.c

Occasionally, in short parenthetical sentences, ᾖ has a concessive force, it is true that, hence and γet, although.

Il. 3. 214 παῦρα μέν, ἀλλὰ μάλα λιγέως, ἐπεὶ οὐ πολύμυθος, οὐδʼ ἀφαμαρτοεπής· ἦ καὶ γένει ὕστερος ᾖεν.

Il. 7. 393 οὔ φησιν δοκεῖν· ἦ μὴν Γρῶές γε κέλονται (§ 344)

Il. 11. 362 ἐξ αὗ νῦν ἔφυγες θάνατον, κύον· ἦ τέ τοι ἄγχι ἢλθε κακόν (so 18. 13).

IL. 22.280 ἦ τοι ἔφην γε (= though I did think ; so 22. 280)

The question whether ἦ (or ᾖ) can be used to introduce a Dependent hn- terrogative depends upon a fevw passages. Bekker favours ᾖ in this use, and reads accorddingl, ε. g. Il. Il. 83 σb δὲ φράσαι με σαάῶσεις. The majority of the editors recognize it in three or four places.

Il. 8. 111 εἴσεται ἦ καὶ ἐμὸν δόρυ μαίνεται κτλ.

Od. 13. 415 χετο πευσόμενος μετὰ σὸν κλέος, ἦ που ἔτʼ εἴης.

Od. 16. 137 ἀλλʼ ἄγε μοι τόδε εἰπὲ καὶ ἀτρεκκέαως κατάλεξον, ἦ καὶ λαέρτῃ αὐτὴν ὁδὸν ἄγγελος ἔλθαω.

Od. 19. 325 πῶς γὰρ ἐμεῦ σύ, ξεῖνε, δαήσεαι, ἦ τι γυναικῶν ἀλλάαν περίειμι

In all these places, however, there is manuscript support for εἷ, and so La Rοche reads in the two last. For the use of εἷ vwith the Subj. see § 294, vwith the Opt. 5 314. t is difficult to derive the use of ἦ vwhich Bekker supposes either from the emphatic ᾖ, or from the disjunctive χέ or ἦ (Hom. Bl. p. 59) In any case there is no sufficient ground for deserting the MSS.

ᾖ is often combined more or less closely ςwith other Particles : as 7 τα (§ 333, 2), ᾖ νᾶν, 3ρ. (§§ 3435). ᾖ τοι (οr ἤτοι), ἢδη (for ἦ δή), and the correlative ἡμέν . . . ὴδέ. In these combinations ᾖ strengthens the other Particle.

Note that ὴμμέν . . . ηδέ are used of slightly opposed things, especially when alternation is implied.

Od. 2. 68 λίσσομαι ἠμὲν Ζηνὸς Ὀλυμπίου ἠδὲ Θέμιστος, ᾖ τʼ ἀνδρῶν ἀγορὰς ἠμὲν λύει ἠδὲ καθίζει·

i.e. "assembles and dissolves again in turn" (Latin tum . . . tum). Cp. Il. 8. 395 ἠμὲν ἀνακλίναι . . . ἡδʼ ἐπιθεῖναι: and so Il. 7. 301, Od. Il. 97, 8. 383, and probably ll. 6. 149 ἠμὲν φύει ἡδʼ ἀπο- λήγει. The original emphasis may sometimes be traced, as in the formula ll. 14. 234 ἠμὲν δή ποι ἐμὸν ἔπος ἔκλυες ἠδʼ ἔτι καὶ νῦν πείθευ surely you have heard me before, and even so listen now.

ηδέ is also used (= and) without a preceding έν, but not to begin a fresh sentence. Cp. § 331 fin. for the similar use of τε.

339. ᾖ after τί, ἐπεί. In most editions of Homer we find the forms τίη (or τιή) and ἐπειή, which are evidently τί, ἐπεί with a suffix -τη of an affirmative or emphasising kind.

The ancient grammarians seem generally to have considered this η as a distinct word. They lay down the rule that after ἐπεί it is circumflexed, after τί oxytone. The form ἐπεὶ ἦ is supported by the fact that it is chiefly found in the combination ἐπεὶ ᾖ πολὸ κτλ. (l. Il. 169, 4. 55, 307, 8xc.) ; also with μάλα (l. Il. 155 ἐπεὶ ἦ μάλα πολλὰ μεταξὺ κτλ., Od. 10. 465 ἐπεὶ ἦ μάλα πολλὰ πέπασθε, cp. ἦ μάλα, Il. 17. 34, and καὶ (Ii. 20. 437, Od. 16. 442).

The case of τί is different. There is no ground for writing τί ἦ (ike ἐπεὶ ἢ). The form τί ᾖ, which is adopted by the most recent editors on the authorit of the ancient2, is not satisfactory. f this ᾖ was originally the affirmative ἢ, the change of accent ςwould indicate that it had lost its character as a separate word. And this is confirmed by the combination τί ἦ δὲ σὺ κτλ. (l. 6. 55, 8Sc.), which as now written is contrary to the general rule for the place of δέ, Moreover the ancients were not unanimous on the point, since Γryphο wrote τίη in one word (Apollonius, de Cοηg. p. 523).

With τίη is to be placed the emphatic nominative τόν . . . τη you, a form which occurs in the Iliad only (cp. the Doric ἐγών-η).