Uses of the Nominative

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161. Impersοnal Verbs. It is evident that in a language which distinguishes the Person and Number ob the Verb by the Ending, it is not essential that there should be a distinct word as Nominative. ἐσ-τί (e.g.) stands for ἀe la, ςθe ς, it w; the person or thing meant by the Ending may be left to be gathered from the context. n certain cases, however, the Subject meant by an Ending of the Γhirdὰ Person is too indefinite to be expressed by a particular Noun, such as the context could supply to the mind. For instance, in the sentence οὕτως ἐσ-τί it is ο, the real Subject given by thne Ending -τι (in English by the word it) is at a particular thing already mentioned or implied, but a vague notion-' the case,' ' the course ob things, dc5 Verbs used ςwith a vague unexpressed Subject of this kind are called Personal.

The vague Subject may be a Plural. as Il. 16. 128 οὐκέτι φυκτὰ πέλονται re caπe πο ἰορeτ alοκws Wʼ fἰgἄt, Od. 2. 203 ἴσα ἔσσεται tἄiπs μwitἰ θe eνeπ.

A CNeuter Pronoun used as the Subject sometimes gives a vague meaning, not far removed from that of an Impersonal Verb; e.g. B. Il. 554 εἰ δʼ οὕτω τοῦτʼ ἐστί gʼ tἄiς is 2ο (cp. οὕτως ἐστί it is πο); ἐσθλὸν καὶ τὸ τέτυκται it is a gοοad tπ9 tοο.

An Impersonal Verb is often folloςwed by an nfinitive, or dependent Clause, which supplies the want of a Subject. See ἦ 234.2

162. Nominative in the Predicate. n certain cases the Predicate of a sentence may be limited or modified by a Nominative in agreement with the Subject. This is especially found-

  1. With Adjectives of tiπme; as ἑσπέριοι ἀφίκοντο teγ caπme inn re eνenίg, ἐννύχιος προμολών cοπαίg fοrtά ὑγ κίgt, εὐδον παννύχιοι κteρt alt πόt, χθιζὸς ἔβη μent γeςίeτdαν. Such Adjectives seem to answer most nearly to the Gen. of time μwwitθinn vwhich, but may also express dκτaίιοκ, as πανημέριος and παννύχιος.
  2. In describing the attitκde, ραneτ, ροςitiοn, dc. in which an action is done : as παλίνορσος ἀπέστη πtοοd ofʼ wit a otart ὑacὲ- μκwaτads, ὕπτιος ὅδει ἐρείσθη was σdasead face uρwaτads on tἄe gτομunad; so πεζὸς εἰλήλουθα, λάβρος ἐπαιγίζων, πρόφρων τέτληκας (Cp. προ- φρονέως), ἀμετροέπης ἐκολῴα, etc.
  3. The Pronouns ὅδε and κεῖνος are sometimes used instead of Adverbs of place : Π. 5. 504 καὶ νῦν οἱ πάρα κεῖνος Ἄρης ποκw tοο γοnder is dreς at ἄiς ςίde; 1Ο. 434 Θρήίκες οἵδ’ ἀπάνευθε ere are tᾖe ἄrαcίαnπ αρaτt; Od. 6. 276 τίς δʼ ὅδε Ναυσικάᾳ ἕπεται; So οτος in Il. 10. 82 τίς δʼ οὕτος κτλ.
  4. Wi5h yVerbs meaning to θe, to ὁecοe, 2ο αρρear, ἰο be παade, called, t2ο9ὰt, c.; as κάρτιστοι τράφεν tεγ μκweτe nuτtμured the πmgὰtiest, (i.e. to de iRe πuitάtest); εἰσωποὶ ἐγένοντο νεῶν tReγ caρue to ὁe iπn fτοnt ῃf tᾶe ςἡίρς: ἥδε ἀρίστη φαίνετο βουλή this appeared the best counsel.

    In all such cases the Nominative vwhich goes vwithh the Verb not only qualiies the notion given by the VerbStem, but also becomes itself a Predicate (i. e. the assertion of an attribute). θ.g. κάρειστοι τράφεν implies that they ιυeτe κάρτιστοι. A Roun so used is called a Sν0oκnoaa2 Predicate.

    The use of εἴων as the ' logical copula is merely a special or ' singularʼ case a See RiddelΓs bίges, ii 95-100: Siggvwart, ρετsonαlίen. of this type of sentence. Thαα Verb has then ittle or no meaning of its οvwn, but serves to mark the follovwing Houn as a Predicate. The final stage of the development is reached when the Verb is omitted as being superfluous.

  5. With Impersonal or halt-mpersonal Verbs meaning to e, 8pc.; the Predicate being-

    (a) a Neuter Adjective ; as μόρσιμόν ἐστι it is fated ; νεμεσ- σητὸν δέ κεν εἴη it μκwονd be νοrtῆγ ηfff iπd9ππαtiοn ; οὔ τοι ἀεικές it a ποί uππueet for tieea with a Pronominal Subject, ἐσθλὸν γὰρ τὸ τέτυκται it la a gοοd thing.

    In the Plural, οὐκέτι φυκτὰ πέλονται tἄere i πο πmοτe e2cαρίρ; 2p. λοίγια ἔργα τάδʼ ἔσσεται tθiw νwitt e a pestiteρt business.

    In one or two instances the Adverbial form in -οως is used in phrases of this kind : B. 11. 762 ὡς ἔον εἴ ποτʼ ἔον γε 2ucὰ νwας gʼ was ; ll. 9. 551 Κουρήτεσσι κακῶς ἢν tἄιρς κwent it for re Cuureteς; l.7. 424 διαγνῶναι χαλεπῶς ἢν it wας aarad tοdiςtiππ9uiὰ; lL 11. 838 πῶς τ ἄρʼ ἔοι τάδε ἔργα; Od. 1 Il. 335 πῶς ὕμμιν ἀνὴρ ὅδε φαίνεται εἶναι. This may be regarded as older than the Neut. Nominative, since it indicates that the Verb is not a mere bcopula,' bat has a meaning which the Adverb qualifies. Cp. Il. 6. 131 δὴν ἢν iνed ορ (ππδηναιὸς ἢν): also the Adverbial Neut. Plur, as Thuc. Il. 25. 4 ὄντες Il. Il. ὅμοια, 3- 14. 1 ἴσα καὶ ἱκέται ἐσμέν.

    (b) an abstract Noun ; as Π. 17. 556 σοὶ μὲν δὴ Μενέλαε κατη- φείη καὶ ὄνειδος ἔσσεται εἰ κτλ. to thee it witί ὐe a 2μuρaθίίng auf τeρτοacὰ f ἢπ.; οὐ νέμεσις it la πο κwτοng ; οὐκ ἄρα τις χάρις ᾖεν it κwaς πο πatter ogʼ tiαnές ; εἰ δέ μοι αἶσα t gʼit iw ππγ fate with a Pronominal Subject, λώβη τάδε γʼ ἔσσεται tiiς μwit de a a2αρme. The use of an abstract Noun instead of an Adjective is a license or boldness of language of which ςwe have already had examples; see ἦ 116 and ἦ 126.

    It is worthwhile to notice the tendency to import the ideas ob οbtgatiοα, πecessi(γ, 8dc. into these phrases : e5. οὐ νέμεσις it la ποί (wοτtiγ g, a πmαtter ἤη) inαdgπαtiοn, ὄνειδος ἔσσεται it wit ὁe (9τοund g) τeρτοacθ. So in Latin νestra eπiςtiπatiο eat πκα it ς πmatter fοτ your judgement.

    The Latin idiom calledd the Predicative Dative (RRοby, Pl. Il. pp. xxτ-Ivi) may be regarded as a less violent mode of expression than this ἕom., since the Dat. is a case vwhich is originally ' adverbialLʼ i. e. construed with the Predicate given by the Verb-SStem. n other vwοrds, dedecοrι eat is a less bold andἄ probably more primitive vway of saying it la dιsgταcgfuὶ than dedecνιs eat; jueb as κόκκῳ2 jν is more primitive than κακὸν v.

  6. The ordinary use of the Participle belongs to this head : as διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε parted after ἄaνig ηuarτeted. Tm this use the Participle qualifies the Verb-Stem, and at the same time makes a distinct assertion : see Chapter X.

163. Interjectional Nominative. The Nom. is not unfre- quently used in Homer vwithout any regular construction, as a kind of exclamation.

Il. 5. 405 σοὶ δʼ ἐπὶ τοῦτον ἀνῆκε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη,
νήπιος, οὐδὲ τὸ οἶδε κτλ. fοοt f ἄε ἑἑποws ποί etc.

Similarly σχέτλιος crμuetf δύσμορος tie μπnθαρργ one (Od. 20. 194) : and so ll. 1.231 δημοβόρος βασιλεύς Cp. the interjectional use of αἰδώς 2ἀαριe (Π. 5.787, 13- ὐ5, 16. 422).

A similar account may be given οἱ one or tςwo passages in which commentators generally suppose ' anacoluthon.

Il. 10.436 τοῦ δὴ καλλίστους ἵππους ἴδον ἠδὲ μεγίστοις·
λευκότεροι χιόνος, θείειν δ ἀνέμοισιν ὁμοῖοι

whiter than snow they are! etc.; and so in the equally abrupt-

Il. 10. 547 αἰνῶς ἀκτίνεσσιν ἐοικότες ἠελίοιο.
2. 353 ἀστράπτων ἐπιδέξιʼ ἐναίσιμα σήματα φαίνων (he did sο I tell you) any lightening on the right etc.
Od. Il. 51 νῆσος δενδρήεσσα, θεὰ δʼ ἐνὶ δώματα ναίει an island (it is) well wοοded, and a goddess has her dwelling there!

These forms of expression, when we seek to bring them under the general lavws of the grammatical Sentence, resolrve themselves into τedιcαtes wιtι α μneagprτessedd Sbect. On the logical Propositions of this kind see Sigvwart (οgιὰc, Il. p. 55). The Predicate, he shovws, is alvways expressed in a vword (or vwοrds) ; but the Subject, when it is of the kind vwhich vwouldd be expressed by a Pronoun (it, tὰis, ὰc.) may be indicated by a gesture. The simplest examples of the type are the imperfect sentences used by children, such as horse 7 for this is α ὰοτse. VWhen such sentences are introduced into literary langgage, they give it an abrupt and interjectional character, as in the examples quoted. VWe might add the phrases such as οὐ νέμεσις it ις no ιστοng (§ 162), in vwhichh the want of a Verb makes the expression somevwhat interjectional. Compare, for instance, οὐ νέμεσις vwith αἰθάς, Ἀργεῖοι shame on γσιι, Greeks ; also the so-called eipse in commandds, as ἀλλʼ ἄνα but up!