Words with Initial δϝ

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394. This combination is to be recognized in two groups of words.

  • δϝει- (δϝι-)
  • ἔδεισα1
  • δεὸς
  • δεινός
  • δειλός, etc.

A short vowel is frequently lengthened before these words.

Il. 1. 515 οὔ τοι ἔπι δέος

Il. 11.37 περὶ δὲ Δεῖμός τε Φόβος τε

Od. 5.52 ὅς τε κατὰ δεινούς

Od. 9.236 ἡμεῖς δὲ δείσαντες

The cases in which a vowel is allowed to count as short before the δ of this root are extremely few.

Il. 8.133 θροντήσας δʼ ἄρα δεινόν

Od. 12.203 τῶν δʼ ἄρα δεισάντων
                   (read ἄρ)

Il. 13.165 ἀπὸ ἕο δεῖσε δέ

There remain only

Il. 13.278 ἔνθʼ ὅ τε δειλὸς ἀνήρ
                (read ἔνθʼ ὅς τε δειλός)

Il. 15.626, and the forms ὑποδείσατε (Od. 2.66), δεδίασι (Il. 24.663), ἀδειήs (Il. 7.117).

δὴν, δηρόν, δηθά

In δὴν the ϝ is required in the phrases οὔ τι μάλα δήν, οὐδʼ ἄρʼ ἔτι δήν, etc.; there are no contrary instances. In δηρόν it is traced in two places, Il. 9. 415 (ἐπὶ δηρὸν δέ μοι αἰών), Od. 1.203, but is more commonly absent (οὐκέτι δηρόν, etc.). The instances of δηθά do not show anything.

It is to be observed that except in ἔδεισα the original δϝ does not lengthen a vowel without the ictus. Compare the rule as to initial ϝ lengthening a short syllable by positiοn, § 391.

  • 1. So Ar.