ἄρα, γάρ

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347. The Adverb ἄρα properly means fittingly, accordingly (root ἄρ- to fit), The forms ἄρ and 6α seem to be varieties pro- duced by diβference of stress, answering to the ἀifferent values which the Particle may have in the sentence. Of these ἄρ retains its accent, but 5α, the shortest form, is enclitic.

The ordinary place of ἄρα is at the beginning of a Clause which expresses what is cοnse7eat upon something alhready said. But occasionally it foloςws a Participle in the same Clause, as in the formαla ἦ τοι ὅ γ. ὡς εἰπὼν κατ ἄρʼ ἕζετο (cp. Il. 2. 310, 5.748).

It is to be observed, however, that ἄρα may indicate a τeasοn (as well as a consequence): that is to say, we may go back from a fact to the antecedeant vwhich fats in ςwith and so explains it.

Il. 1. 429 χωόμενον κατὰ θυμὸν ἐῦζώνοιο γυναικός, τήν α . . . ἀπηύρων
whom (and this was the τeasοn of his anger) theγ had taken away. So in the combinations ὅς 6α, ἐπεί α, ὅτι α, οὕνεκ’ ἄρα = because (and this is the explanation).

Also in γάρ 5α, as Il. 1. 113

καὶ γάρ ῥα Κλυταιμνήστρης προβέβουλα.

ἄρα is also found in the first of tςwο correlative Clauses.

εἴ τʼ ἄρʼ ὅ γʼ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται εἴ θʼ ἑκατόμβης.

ὡς ἄγαγʼ ὡς μήτʼ ἄρ τις ἴδῃ μήτʼ ἄρ τε νοήσῃ.

The parallel form of the sentence enables us to regard the first Clause, by anticipation, as falling in with and completing the second.

The Attic ἄρα is unknοwn to Homer. Whether it is identical with ἄρα seems doubtful. It is vworth vwhile noticing that ἄρα answers in usage to the Homeric combination ἦ bα (is it then . . ?).

348. The Causal Particle γάρ is originally a compound of γε and ἄρα, but the tςwo elements have so completely united into a neςw ςwhole that the fresh combination γάρ α is found in Homer.

γάρ serves to indicate that the Clause in which it is used is a reason or explanation, usually of something just mentioned or sugggested.

τῷ γὰρ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Hρη· κήδετο γὰρ Δαναῶν, κτλ.

Thus it follows the sequence of thought—by which we go back from a consequent to an antecedent—whereas ἄρα more commonly (though not always) indicates the sequence of the facts themselves.

Compare the double use of ὅ, ὅτι, δ τε (1) to express a cause, (2) to express a consequent used as an argαmenb (cp. τοίου γὰρ καὶ πατρός, ὃ καὶ πεπνυμένα βάζεις, and other examples in § 269). To understand the ordinary use of γὰρ we have only to suppose that vwhen a speaker vwas going back upon an antecedent fact, he generally used the combination γε ἅρα (γʼ ἄρ, γάρ), rather than the simple ἄρα. The principle of this usage is that a causal relation may be indicated by a distinction of emphasis, such as γε vwould express (as indeed γε alone sometimes has a distinctly cαιιsαὶ force).

As subordinate or exceptional uses, vwe have to note the following:

  1. The use of γάρ to introduce a mere explanation, which became very common in Attic (e.g. Thuc. 1. 8 μαρτύριον δέ· Δήλου γὰρ κτλ.) and may be traced back to Homer. Thus-

    Il. 8. 147 ἀλλὰ τόδʼ αἰνὸν ἄχος κραδίην καὶ θυμὸν ἱκάνει· Ἕκτωρ γάρ ποτε φήσει κτλ.

    This idiοm—by which the Clause with γάρ becomes a kind of Object-Clause, in apposition to a Pronoun—may be compared with the use of ὅτι and οῶνεκα with the meaning that, instead of because: see §§ 268, 269. In both cases the language does not clearly distinguish between the ground of a fact (which is properly a separate and prior fact), and a mere analysis, or statement of circumstances in vwhich a fact consists.

  2. The inversion (as it may be regarded) by which the Clause with γάρ precedes the fact explained.

    Il. 2. 802 Εκτορ, σοὶ δὲ μάλιστʼ ἐπιτέλλομαι ὥδέ γε ῥέξαι πολλοὶ γὰρ κατὰ ἄστυ μέγα Πριάμου ἐπίκουροι, ἄλλη δʼ ἄλλων γλῶσσα πολυσπερέων ἀνθρώπων· τοῖσιν ἕκαστος ἀνὴρ σημαινέτω

    Also, Il. 13. 7 35, 23. 890; Od. 1. 337, 9. 319, 10. 174, 190, 226, 33, 11. ὅ9. 12. 154, 208, 320, etc.).

    Here the speaker begins by stating something that leads up to his main point. Sometimes, especially when the reason is stated at some length, the main point is marked as an inference by τῷ sο, therefore

    Il. 77. 328-331 πολλοὶ γὰρ τεθνᾶσι κάρη κομόωντες ἀχαιοί, τῶν νῦν οἶμα κελαινὸν . . . τῷ σε χρὴ πόλεμον μὲν ἅμʼ ἠοῖ παῦσαι ἀχαιῶν.

    So Il. 13. 228, 15. 739, 17. 221, 338, 23. 607; there is no instance in the Odyssey.

    When the Clause with γάρ precedes, it may be opposed to the preceding context: hence the γάρ may be combined with adversative Conjunctions

    Il. 12. 326 νῦν δʼ ἔμπης γὰρ κῆρες ἐφεστᾶσιν θανάτοιο . . . ἴομεν κτλ.

    Cp. l.7. 73, 17- 338, 24. 223.

    Od. 14. 355 ἀλλʼ οὐ γάρ σφιν ἐφαίνετο κέρδιον εἶναι μαίεσθαι προτέρω· τοὶ μὲν πάλιν αὗτις ἔβαινον νηὸς ἐπὶ γλαφυρῆς (cp. Od. 19. 591).

    ἀλλὰ . . . γάρ also occurs without a subsequent Clause.

    Od. 10. 201 κλαῖον δὲ λιγέως, θαλερὸν κατὰ δάκρυ χέοντες· ἀλλʼ οὐ γάρ τις πρῆξις ἐγίγνετο μυρομένοισι.

    Here it has the force ob "but be that as it may", "but the truth is" (Riddell, Dig. § 147). That is, ἀλλὰ . . . γάρ meets what has preceded not by a simple opposition, but by one which consists in going back to a τeasοn for the opposite: vwhich may be enough to convey the speakers meaning.

    In these uses of γάρ the peculiarity is more logical than gram- matical. The γάρ (or rather the ἅρα contained in it) indicates that the Clause gives a τeasοn or e22ρlanatiοn, which the speaker chooses to mention before the consequent or thing to be explained. The use only strikes us because the English for is restricted to causal clauses placed in the more natural order.

    With δὲ . . . γάρ and ἀλλὰ . . . γάρ it is incorrect (as Riddell shows, l.c.) to treat the Clause with γάρ as a parenthesis (writing e.g. νῦν δʼ . . . ἔμπης γὰρ κτλ.). The Clause so introduced μs alςways in opposition to the preceding context, so that the δέ or ἀλλά has its fudl force.

  3. After the Relative ὅς, ἢ, ὅ.

    Il. 12. 344 ἀμφοτέρω μὲν μᾶλλον· ὃ γάρ κʼ ὄχʼ ἄριστον ἀπάντων εἴη
    (so Il. 23. 9, Od. 24. 190).

    Od. Il. 286 (Μενέλαος) ὅς γὰρ δεύτατος ἢλθεν
    (cp. 17. 172).

    So with ὡς γάρ = fοr thus, and ἴνα γάρ (1. 10. 127).

    These are generally regarded as instances of the original use of ὅς as a Demonstrative (§ 265). But it is only the use of γάρ that is peculiar; or rather, this is only another case in which γάρ is not translated by for. br ςwil be seen that ὅς γάρ may alvways be replaced by ὅς ἄρα without changing the sense.

  4. In abrupt questions, and expressions of surprise.

    Il. 1. 123 πῶς γάρ τοι δώσουσι γέρας μεγάθυμοι Ἀχαιοί
    why, how are the Greeks to give you a prize?

    Il. 18. 182 'ρι θεά, τίς γάρ σε θεῶν ἐμοὶ ἄγγελον ἢκε

    Il. 1.293 ἦ γάρ κεν δειλός τε καὶ οὐτιδανὸς καλεοίμην κτλ.
    why, I should be a cοward, etc.

    So in the formulae of wish, εἰ γάρ, αἱ γάρ, etc. In all such cases the γάρ seems to be mainly interjectional. Properly it implies that the speaker is taking up the thread of a previous speech, and as it were continuing the construction, the new Clause being one that gives a reason, or affects to do so ironically. Particles so used easily acquire an irrational character. We may compare the use of δέ and τ ἄρα in questions, ὥς in expressions of wwiwὰ, aλλά before an imperative (§ 336): also the English use of why, well, and similar pleonasms.