οὐδέ, μηδέ

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356. These forms are generally used as negative connecting Particles (but not, and not). Sometimes however they have a strengthening or emphatic force, corresponding to the similar use of καί in affirmative sentences.

Il. 5. 485 τύνη δʼ ἕστηκας, ἀτὰρ οὁδʼ ἄλλοισι κελεύεις
you stand still (yourself), and (what is more) do not call on the others to fight and in combination with περ

Il. 4. 387 ἔνθʼ οὐδὲ ξεῖνός περ ἐἀὼν κτλ.

So καὶ ὅς even he, οὁδʼ ὅς not even he, etc.

οὁδείς is originally an emphatic form (like the later οδὲ εἰς). In Homer the neuter οδέν is occasionally found, sometimes as an emphatic Adverb = not at all.

Il. 1. 244 ὅ τʼ ἄριστον Ἀχαιῶν οὐδὲν ἔτισας

So Il. 1. 412, 15. 224., 22. 332. 513, 24. 370; Od. 4. 195, 9. 287): sometimes as a Substantive, nothing at all (Nom. and Acc.)

Od. 9. 34 ὡς οὐδὲν γλύκιον
no single thing is sweeter (cp. 18. 135, 22. 318)

The adjectival use is found with ἔπος (Od. 4. 355, 177. 141), also in Il. 10. 216 τῇ μὲν κτέρας οὐδὲν ὁμοῖον, and perhaps Il. 22. 513 οὐδὲν σοί γʼ ὄφελος (where οὐδέν πmαν be adverbial). The genitive neuter appears in the Compound οὐδενόσ-ωρος worth nothing (Il. 8. 178). The masculine occurs only in the phrase τὸ ὃν μένος οὐδενὶ εἴκων (Il. 22. 459; Od. 11. 515).

The form uνη6είς is post-Homeric, except the form μνηδέν, which occurs only in Il. 18. 500 ὁ δʼ ἀναίνετο μηδὲν ἑλέσθαι.

357. Double negation. This characteristic feature of Greek is caused by the tendency to τeρeat the negative Particle ςwwith any vword or phrase to which the negation especially applies.

Il. 1. 14 ἐπεὶ οὗ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων, οὐ δέμας κτλ.
since she is not inferior—not in fοrm, etc.

The emphatic οὐδέ and μμνηδέ are chiefly used in this way

οὐ μὰν οὐδʼ Ἀχιλεὺς κτλ.
no, not even Achilles, etc.

Il. 2. 703 οὐδὲ μὲν οὐδʼ οἱ ἄναρχοι ἔσαν

Od. 8. 280 τά γʼ οὔ κέ τις οὐδὲ ἴδοιτο, οὐδὲ θεῶν μακάρων

Il. 6. 58 μηδʼ ὅν τινα γαστέρι μήτηρ κοῦρον ἐόντα φέροι μηδʼ ὃς φύγοι.