οὖν, δή, νυ, θην

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349. οδν in Hoαmer does not properly express inference, or even consequence (like ἄρα). Its use is to affirm something with reference to other facts, already mentioned or known; hence it may generally be represented by a phrase such as after all, be this as it may, etc.

Il. 2. 350 φημὶ γὰρ οὖνfor do declare that etc.

Od. 11. 350 ξεῖνος δὲ τλήτω, μάλα περ νόστοιο χατίζων, ἔμπης οὖν ἐπιμεῖναι ἐς αὔριον
(nevertheless to wait).

Like ἄρα, it is used to emphasize correlative Clauses, but only ςwith the negative οὗτε . . . οὔτε and μήτε . . . μήτε.

Od. 6. 192 οὔτʼ οὖν ἐσθῆτος δευήσεαι οὔτε τευ ἄλλου.

Il. 16. 97 αἰγὰρ . . . μήτετις οὖν Γρώων . . . μήτε τις Ἀργείων, κτλ.

So Il. 8. 7, 17. 20., 20.7; Od. 1. 414, 2. 200, 11. 200, 16. 302, 17. 401.

The combination γʼ οὅν (not to be written γοῦν in Homer) occurs only twice, with the meaning in any case.

Il. 5. 258 εἴ γʼ οὖν ἕτερός γε φύγῃσι
if one of these two dοes (after all) escape.

Il. 16. 30 μὴ ἐμέ γʼ οὖν οτός γε λάβοι χόλος

Cp. 19. 94 κατὰ δʼ οὖν ἕτερόν γε πέδησεν.

As an emphatic Particle of transition οὅν is found in μὲν οὅν (I1. 9. 550, and several times in the Odyssey), much more frequently in the combinations ἐπεὶ οὖν, ὡς οὖν. n these an approach to the ittative force may perhaps be observed.

350. δὴ is properly a temporal Particle, meaning ποκ, at teπρtῷ (Lsaat. iaρm): hence it implies arriving at a result, as ἐξ οὔ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην fτορm the tiρe tint iRe pοiπt was τeacάed μwὰen t2eγ ηuarretedτ εἷ δή gʼ it 2as cορme to tᾖiς tἀat, and so gʼ fπαίν, gʼτeαtίγ. With Superlatives it expresses that the highest stage has been reached

Il. 1. 266 κάρτιστοι δὴ κεῖνοι κτλ.
these μκeτe μμite (πnαtέγ) re πm9ἀtieςt.

So in questions, πῶς δή 2ομκw 2ας it could to e that -; and prohibitions, μὴ δή do not go so far as to . . .

δή may begin a sentence in Homer, as ll. 15.437 Γεῦκρε πέπον, δὴ νῶίν ἀπέκτατο πιστὸς ἑταῖρος: and often in the combinations δὴ τότε (tμμπm νeτο, and δὴ γάρ. The original meaning is best seen in these forms (where δή is emphatic), and in δή (for ἦ δή), and ἐπεὶ δή.

As δὴ is one of the words which unite with a following vowel, so as to form one syllable, it is sometimes written δʼ, and so is liable to be confused ςwith δέ. This occurs especially in the combinations δὲὴ αὅ, δὴ αὁτός, δὲὴ οὅτως.

Il. 1. 131 μὴ δὴ οὕτως

Il. 1. 340 εἴ ποτε δὴ οὔτε

Il. 10. 385 πῆ δὴ οὕτως

Il. 20. 220 ὅς δὴ ἀφνειότατος κτλ.

So in εἰ δʼ ἄγε the sense generally requires δή : see ἡ 321.

Note that δῆτα, δςθεν (cognate or derivative forms) are post- Homeric ; as also are the combinations δήποu, καὶ δή.

351. νυ is obviously a shortened form of νῦν ποw. Ibt is used as an affirmative Particle (like δή, but somewhat less emphatic), especially in combinations such as ᾖ bά νυ, καί νύ κε, οὗ νυ, pὴ νυ, ἐπεί νυ, and after Interrogatives, as τίς νυν μwὰο ποw, τί νυ wξγ ππο (see Od. Il. 59-62).

The form νο is exclusively Epic : νυν (ὕ), which is used by Attic poets (Ellendt, be22. θορὰ. ii. p. 183) appears in Ii. 10. 105 ὅσα πού νυν ἐέλπεται, and Π. 23. 485 δεῦρό νυν, ἦ τρίποδος κτλ.: but it is probably not Homeric.

In Il. 10. 105 the sense is distinctly temporal, and accorddingly we should probably read νῦν ἕλπεται. The temporal sense also suits Il. 23. 485, where moreover there is a variant δεῦρό γε νῦν τρίποδος, found in the Scholia on Aristophanes (Act.771, Eq.788).

352. θην is an affirmative enclitic, giving a mocking or ironical force, like the later δηπουωω and δςὴθεν (which is perhaps originally δή θην).

Il. 2. 276 οὔ θήν μιν πάλιν οὔτις ἀνήσει θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ
his bold spirit will not imagine impel him again

Il. 13. 620 λείψετέ θην οὕτω γε
I think in this fashion you will leave, etc. It is only Epic.