ἀλλά, αὐτάρ, ἀτάρ, αὖ, αὖτε

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336. The remaining adversative particles do not need much explanation.

ἀλλά and αὐτάρ are used (like δέ) in the apodosis, especially after a clause with εἴ περ.

Il. 1.81 εἴ περ γάρ τε . . .
            ἀλλά τε (cp. 8.153, 19.154)

Il. 22.389 εἰ δὲ θανόντων περ . . .
                αὐτὰρ ἐγὼ κτλ.

αὐτάρ and ἀτάρ express a slighter opposition than ἀλλά, and accordingly are often used as particles of transition; e.g. in such formulae as ὣς οἱ μὲν . . . αὐτὰρ κτλ. A similar use of ἀλλά may be seen with imperatives; as ἀλλʼ ἴθι, ἀλλʼ ἄγε μοι τόδε εἰπέ, and the like. It is evident that the stronger adversative is chosen where greater liveliness of tone is to be conveyed.

337. αὖ and αὖτε (again, on the cοntrary) have nearly the same force as αὐτάρ, but do not begin the sentence; hence νῦν αὖ, τίς δʼ αὖ, τίπτʼ αὖτε, etc., and so in correspondence to μέν or ἦ τοι.

Il. 4.237 τῶν ἦ τοι . . .
              ἡμεῖς αὖτε κτλ.

They also serve to mark the apodosis of a relative or conditional clause.

Il. 4.321 εἰ τότε κοῦρος ἔα, νῦν αὖτέ με γῆρας ὀπάζει

Thus they have the two chief uses of δέ.

Originally, doubtless, αὖ meant backwards, but in Homer this sense is only found in the form αὖτις, though perhaps it survives in the sacrificial wοrd αὐέρυσαν.

The form ὅμως is later, the Homeric word being ἔμπης.

ὅμως is αsually read in Il. 12.393 ὅμως δʼ οὐ λήθετο χάρμης, and Od. 11.565 ἔνθα χʼ ὅμως προσέφην. In both places however the scholia indicate that the word was anciently circumflexed by some authorities.