Short Syllables Ending in a Consonant

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375. ShOrt sylables ending in a c0ns0nant are also occasionally lengthened in arsis, although the next word begins with a vowel.

οὔτε ποτʼ ἐς πόλεμον ἅμα λαῷ θορηχθῆναι.

αἴθʼ ὄφελες ἄγονός τʼ ἔμεναι κτλ.

χερσὶν ὑπʼ Ἀργείων φθίμενος ἐν πατρίδι γαίῃ.

The circumstances under which this metrical lengthening is generally found ddifer remarkably, as has been recently shoςwn1 from those which prevail ςwhere short final vowels are engthened before an initial consonant. In those cases, as we saςw (ἡ 37 1), the rule is that the tςwο vwοrds are closely connected, usually in a set phrase or piece of epic commonplace. n the examples novw in question the words are often separated by the punctuation : and vwhere this is not the case it willl usually be found that there is a slight pause. n haf of the instances the vwords are separated by the penthemiuneral caesura, which alςways marks a pause in the rhythm. Further, this lengthening is only found i the syllable with the ictνuς. The explanation, therefore, must be sought either in the force of the ctμς, or in the pause (which necessarily adds something to the time of a preceding syllable), or in the combination of these tςwο causes. In some instances, however, a ddiβferent account of the matter has to be given : in particular

  1. With ὅς following the wοrd to which is refers : as ll. 2. 190 κακὸν ὥς ( - -), and so θεὸς ὥς, κύνες ὥς, ὄρνιθες ὥς, ἀθά- νατος ὥς, 8xdc. In these instances the lengthening may be re- ferred to the original palatal or 3 of the Pronoun (Sanscr. 3ατ, rd, γαdππ ὅς, ᾖ, ὅ). br is not to be supposed that the actual form ἴως existed in Homeric times: but the habit of treating a preceding syllable as long by Pοsitiοn survived in the group of phrases. Others explain this ὥς as ός (Sanscr. sνα-), com- paring Gothic ςνe 'asʼ(Brugmann, 6Vt. 6r.5 98); or σώς( 108, 3).
  2. In the case of some words ending with -ις, -, -ς, -σr, vwhere the vowel was long, or at least 'doubtful, in Homer.

    In βλοσυρῶπις and ἢνις the final syllable is long before a voςwel even in thesis. So the ι may have been long in θοῦρις (p. the phrase θοῦριν ἐπιειμένος ἀλκήν) : and traces of the same scansion may be seen in the phrases ἔρις ἄμοτον μεμαυῖα, Διἴ μῆτιν ἀτάλαντος, although ἔρις, μῆτῖς are more common.

    Final -ὗς (ten. -υος) is long in Feminine Substantives ( 116, 4), as ἰθύς αiwn (9 in thesis, D. 6. 79, 21. 303), πληθύς (l. 11. 305), ἀχλός (l. 20. 421), ἰλύς (Gen. -ὕος, θρωτύς (Od. 18. 407) and other Noαns in -τύς: also m the Masc. ἰχθύς, νέκυς, βότρυς (βοτρῦδόν), and perhaps πέλεκυς (D. 17. 520.)

  3. Where the vowel of the final syllable is preceded by another, especially by a long vowel; as οἰκῆας ἄλοχόν τε (Ii. 6. 366), Ἀχιλλῆος ὀλοὸν κῆρ (Ii. 14. 139), ὃς λαὸν ἥγειρα (Od.2. 41, δμῶες ἐνὶ οἴκῳ (Od. 11. 190, πλεῖον ἐλέλειπτο (Od. 8. 475). χρεῖος ὑπαλύξαι (with ν. ἔ, χρείως, Od. 8. 355) : and so in νῆας (α, D. 2. 165, 18.250, νηός (Od. 12. 329), Γρῶες(l. 17.730), βοός(Il. 11. 776), also Ἄρηα, ερσῆα, and the other examples gνven in ἡ 374- In such cases there is a tendency to lengthen the second vowel, as in the Attic forms βασιλέα, Ἀχιλλέως, etc. In Homer we may suppose that the second ob the two vowels borrows some of the quantity of the other, so that witθἄ tἄe ἄetρ ῃʼ tἀe ictμuς it can form the arsis of a foot. Actual lengthening of the second voςwel may be seen in Homer in the form ἀπ-ήωρος 2aπgίg ἰοοςe (cp. μετ-ήορος and the later μετ-έωρος) also in δυσαήων (Gen. Plur. ob δυσαής).
  4. In the Ending -οιν of the Dαal. as ὥμοιίν (l. 13. 51 1, 16. 560, Od. 6. 219), ἵπποιίν, σταθμοῖίν: also in νῶίν, σφῶίν. VWa may compare the doubtful ι of ἡμῖν, ὑμῖν, and the tςwο forms of the Dat. Plur. in Lsaatin (-ὁ2ς, -ὐiς). Similarly there are traces of t in μίτ (l. 5. 385 5. 501, 10- 347, 11. 376, 8Sc.). n the case of -οιῖν and -ωίν the account given under the ant head ςwοαld applγ.

    In a few places it appears as though the 3 Plur. of Secondary Γenses in -ν (for -vτ) vwere aowedd to be long : as ἔφαν ἀπιόντες (Od. 9. 413), καὶ κύνεον ἀγαπαζόμενοι (Odd. 17. 35, c.), 1c. This is confined (curiously enough) to the Odyssey and the Catalogue of the Ships. In the latter it occurs seven times: in the Odyssey eleven times, in the rest of the liadd once (7. 206).

  • 1. By Hartel, in the οmerιc Stάdιes already quoted, i. p. 10.