περί

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185. The Prepositiοn περί (or πέρι, ἡ 180) has in Hoαmer the tςwo meanings arοuπnd and ὁeγοnd. Both these meanings are common in the adverbial use; the second often yields the derivative meaning ὑeγοπd πmeasuτe, eπ- ceeadίπg[γ, as-

Il 16.186 πέρι μὲν θείειν ταχύν exceeding swift to run.
18. 549 πέρι θαῦμα τέτυκτο was an exceeding wonder.
Od. 4. 722 πέρι γάρ μοι Oλύμπιος ἄλγε ἔδωκε for Zeus has given to me griefs beyond measure.

The meaning ὑeγοnd is found in Γmesis, Il. 12. 322 πόλεμον περὶ τόνδε φυγόντες escaρίπ9 this war; Il. 19. 230 πολέμοιο περὶ στυγεροῖο λίπωνται πἄaίί τeρρnain ουer fbrορm war: and in Composi- tion, περίειμι 2 eπceί, περιγίγνομαι ἴ get ὁeγοnd, πuτραασε, περίοιδα ἑπποw e2ceeadiπ9 μwett (B. 13. 728 βουλῇ περιίδμεναι ἄλλων to be ἑποwiπρ iπ cοαnπet ὑeγοnd οtἀeτς; cp. Od. 3. 244, 17. 317). Γhe Gen. in such constructions is ablatival (ἡ 152).

186. The Dative with περί (as with ἀμφί) is Locatival; as 7. Il. 303 ἐρωήσει περὶ δουρί μκitt 9μnσὰ ουer (it.τοuπd νροn) tie κρeαατ; 2. 389 περὶ δʼ ἔγχεί χείρα καμεῖται 2is ἄaand νwitt e κweaτγ wit2 οldiππ9 tὥe πρeaτ ; 2. 41ὅ χιτῶνα περὶ στήθεσσι δαίξαι to tear tHe cθitοπ about (rοκπnad ca) tἄe ὁreast, Also of an object of con- tention, οveτ; as Il. 16. 568 περὶ παιδί Il. Il. πόνος εἴη tἄe tοit(f ὐαtte) πιbὰt de ονer 2iw πο, cp. ll. 17. 4. 133, Od. 5. 310 : and in a derivative sense, Od. 2. 245 μαχήσασθαι περὶ δαιτί to fight about a feast.

  1. It is a question which meaning is to be given to περί in-
    Il. 5.566 περὶ γὰρ δίε ποιμένι λαῶν (so 9.433, 11.556).
    10. 240 ἔδεισεν δὲ περὶ ξανθῷ Mενελάᾳῳ.
    17. 242 ὅσσον ἐμῇ κεφαλῇ πέρι δείδια (or περιδείδία).

    and in the Compound (1. 11. 508 τῷ ῥα περίδεισαν, 15. 123 περῖδείσασα θεοῖσι, 21. 328., 23. 822). Most commentators here take περί = exceeding and the Dat. of the person as a Dative ethicus: περὶ γὰρ δίε ποιμένι for he feαredd eazceeαdίngίῃ for tie sὰsρὰeταd, ἂ1c. But it is ddificult to find Homeric analogies for such a use of the Dative, and the meaning over, on behα(f ηf is supported by later writers : HH. Mere. 236 χαωόμενον περὶ βουσί, HHH.Cer.77 ἀχνυμένην περὶ παιδί, HHdt. 3. 35 περὶ ἑαντῷ δειμαίνοντα, Thuc. 1.60 δεδιότες περὶ κτλ.; also by the use of ἀμφί with the Dat. ( 182) in nearly the same meaning.

  2. Much diiculty has been felt about the use of περί in a group of phrases of which the foovwing are the chief instances.
    ll. 4. 53 τὰς διαπέρσαι, ὅτʼ ἄν τοι ἀπέχθαωνται περὶ κῆρι (2p. 4. 4), ὰc ).
    Od. 6. 158 κεῖνος δʼ αὗ περὶ κῆρι μακάρτατος ἔξοχον ἀλλάων.
    II. 21.65 περὶ δʼ 5θέλε θνμῷ (so 24. 235).
    22. 70 ἀλύσσοντες περὶ θυμῷ.
    Od. 14. 146 περὶ γάρ μʼ ἐφίλει καὶ κήδετο θυμῷ.
    Il. 16. 157 τοῖσίν τε περὶ φρεσὶν ἄσπετος ἀλκή.
    Οd. 14. 433 περὶ γὰρ φρεσὶν αἴσιμα ῆδη.

    In all these places the Dative may be construed as a Locative (although κhρι vwithout περί is only found in ll. 9. 117) : the only question is whether the Preposition is to be taken in the literal local sense τοιund, αἰl over, or in the derivative sense exdceeάdίngίῳ. n favour of the latter it may be said that the same combinations of Preposition and Verb are found without a Dat. such as κjpι or θυμῷ, ywhere accordingly περί must mean exceedingly; compare-

    Ll. 13. 430 τὴν περὶ κῆρι φίλησε πατὴρ
    Od. 8. 63 τὸν περὶ 5οὖσ’ ἐφίλησε

    Od. 14. 433 περὶ γὰρ φρεσὶν αἴσιμα ῆδη
    2. 88 περὶ κέρδεα οἶδε

    L1. 16. 157 τοῖσίν τε περὶ φρεσὶν ἄσπετος ἀλκή
    Od. 12. 279 πέρι τοι μένος

    Od. 5. 36 περὶ κῆρι θεὸν ὡς τιμήσουσι
    Il. 8. 161 περὶ μέν σε τίον Δαναοί.

    Again, in ll. 4. 46 τάαων μοι περὶ κῆρι τιέσκετο the meaning bsῳοnd is required by the Gen, τάαων; 0p. 4. 257 πτρὶ μέν σε τίσω Δαναίῶν ταχυπάλαν, 7. 289 περὶ δʼ ἔγχει Ἀχαιῶν φέρτατός ἐσσι, 17. 22 περὶ σθένει βλεμεαίνει. So with the Ace. in ll. 13. ὅ3ι περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἀλλάων.

On the other side, the representation of a feeling as something surrounding or covering the heart, midriff, etc. is common in Homer.

ll. 11. 89 σίτου τε γλυκεροῖο περὶ φρένας ἵμερος αἰμεῖ,
Od. 9. 362 ἐπεὶ Eύκλαπα περὶ φρένας ἤλυθεν οἶνος.

So of a sound, ll. 10. 139 περὶ φρένας λυθʼ αωή (cp. Od. 17. 261). And more frequently vwithh ἀμuμφί; cp. Od. 19. 516 πυκιναὶ δέ μοι ἀμφʼ ἀδινὸν κῆρ ὀξεῖαι μελεδῶνες ὁδυρομένηππ ἐρέθουσι; and the other passages quoted at the end of 5 181. Similarly περὶ κῆρι, περὶ φρεσί, may have been meant in the literal sense, -the feeling (fear, anger, go.) being thought of as ldιng or covering the heart. On the vwhole, hovwever, the evidence is against this vievw;-unless indeed vwe explain περὶ κfῆρι as a traditional phrase, used without a distinct sense of its original meaning.

The occasional use of the Dat. with περί in Attic is probably due to familiarity ςwith Homer.

187. The Accusative with περί is usedA (as with ἀμφί) vwhen πmοtiοn or eπtent in space is expressed : as Π. Il. 448 ἑκατόμβην ἔστησαν περὶ βωμόν pίaced re aecatορmb rομuππd tθe att2r; 2. 750 περὶ Δωδsόνην οἴκι ἔθεντο πuade their dνwettiπ9ς τομuπnd οdοna. Generally speaking the Accusative implies surrounding in a less exact or complete way than the Dative. br makes us think of the space abομut an object rather than of its actual circumference. Occasionally, οἱ course, the circumference iw the space over which motion takes place, or extent is measured : as Il. 12. 297 ῥάψε ῥάβδοισι διηνεκέσιν περὶ κύκλον τοund in a circίe; Il. 18. 274 ἑστάμεναι περὶ τοῖχον to stand along the wall all around it.

188. The Genitive witb περί is used in three distinct ways

  1. With περί meaning beyοnd (in the figurative sense,22excell- ling) it expresses the object of comparison
    B. Il. 287 περὶ πάν- των ἔμμεναι to surpass all
    Od. Il. 235 ἄίστον ἐποίησαν περὶ πάντων have made them unseen mοre than all men
    4.23 ἐπιστάμενος περὶ πάντων.

    This use is distinctively Homeric. The Gen. is ablatival, as with Adjectives of comparison (ἢ 152).

  2. With περί = round, ονer (in the local sense) the Gen. is very rare; the instances are-
    Od. 5, 68 ἠδʼ αὐτοῦ τετάνυστο περὶ σπείους γλαφυροῖο ἡμερὶς ἡβώωσα.
    130 τὸν μὲν ἐγὼν ἐσάωσα περὶ τρόπιος βεβαῶτα.

    Tho Gen. may be akin to the (partitive) Gen. of place (ἢ 149) the vine e. g. grew round in or ουer (but not covering) the cave.

  3. With περί = over (the object of a contest)
    Il. 16. 1 ὡς οἱ μὲν περὶ νηὸς ἐὕσσέλμοιο μάχοντο
    12. 142 ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ νηῶν to defend the ships

    sometimes also in the figurative sense, about,

    Il. 11. 700 περὶ τρίποδος γὰρ ἔμελλον θεύσεσθαι
    Od. 9. 423 ὥς τε περὶ ψυχῆς as when life is at stake

    and of doubt

    Il. 20. 17 ἦ τι περὶ Τρώων καὶ Ἀχαιῶν μερμηρίζεις.

    The use with Verbs of anger and fear is closely akin

    Il. 9. 449 παλλακίδος πέρι χώσατο
    17.240 νέκυος πέρι δείδια (unless we read περιχώσατο, περιδείδια).

    The weapons of the contest are said to be fought over in Od. 8. 225 ἐρίζεσκον περὶ τόξων; so Il. 15. 284 ὁππότε κοῦροι ἐρίσσειαν περὶ μύθων. And this is also applied to the quarrel itself, Il. 16. 476 συνίτην ἔριδος πέρι θυμοβόροιο (cp. 20. 253).

    Under this head will come the Gen. in Il. 23. 485 τρίποδος περιδώμεθον let us wager a tripod, Od. 23. 78 ἐμέθεν περιδώσομαι αὐτῆς I will stake myself. Whatever may be the original meaning of περιδόσθαι, it is construed as if = to join issue, contend (Lat. pignore certare) : cp. the Attic use περιδίδομαί τινι περί (Gen. of the thing staked).

    By a not unnatural extension, περί with the Gen. follows Verbs meaning to speak, know, &c., but only in the Odyssey ; viz. Il. 135 (= 3. 77) ἴνα μιν περὶ πατρὸς ἀποιχομένοιο ἔροιτο; 15. 347 εἴπʼ ἄγε μοι περὶ μητρὸς κτλ.; 17. 563 οἶδα γὰρ εὖ περὶ κείνου; also Il. 405., 7. 191., 16. 234., 17. 37 1., 19. 270. Note that the cor- responding use of ἀμφί with the Dat. is similarly peculiar to the Odyssey (§ 182).

    The origin of this group of constructions is not quite clear. It may be noted, however, that they answer for the most part to constructions of the Gen. without a Preposition ; cp. ἀμύνεσθαι περὶ νηῶν and ἀμύνεσθαι νηῶν ; and again εἰπὲ περὶ μητρός, οἶδα περὶ κείνον, &c. withh the examples given in § 151, d. παρά.