παρά

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189. The Preposition παρά (παραί, by Apocope πάρ) means alongside. It is common in the adverbial use (see § 177), and also in Tmesis and Composition. Nοte the derivative meanings—

  1. at hand hence at command ; as Il. 9. 43 πάρ τοι ὁδός the way is open to you; Od. 9. 125 οὐ γὰρ Κυκλώπεσσι νέες πάρα.
  2. aside; as Il. 11. 233 παραὶ δέ οἱ ἐτράπετʼ ἔγχος the spear was turned to his side (instead of striking him).
  3. hence figuratively, παρά μʼ ἥπαφε cozened me 'aside' away from my aim : and so παρπεπιθών changing the mind by per- suasion παρειπών talking over &c.; also, with a different metaphor, wrongly.
  4. past, with Verbs of motion, as ἔρχομαι, ἐλαύνω, &c.

190. With the Dative παρά means beside in the company of, near. It is applied in Homer to both persons and things (whereas in later Greek the Dat. with παρά is almost wholly confined to persons); thus ςwe have παρὰ νηί, παρὰ νηυσί (very frequently), παρʼ ἄρμασι, παρὰ βωμῷ, πὰρ ποσί, παρὰ σταθμῷ, 8Sʼc. Phis Dat. is either locatival or instrumental: see ἡ 144. Ti may be αsed after a Verb of motion (eg. ll. 13. 617),see ἡ 145.4.

191. The Accusative with παρά is commonly used-

  1. when motion ends beside or near a person or thing.
    Il. ll.314 ἧσο παρʼ αὐτὸν ἰοῦσα go and sit by him
    Il. 7.190 τὸν μὲν πὰρ πόδʼ ἑὸν χαμάδις βάλε.

    Hence the use of the Ace. often iwρlieς motion: as ll. 11. 314 παρʼ ἔμʼ ἵστασο ρίace γοurεef δeςide πe; Od. Il. 333 στῆ ῥα παρὰ σταθμόν caρme and ςtοοd ὁeςide re ρitar; Il. 6. 433 λαὸν δὲ στῆσον παρ. ἐρινεόν. Similarly of the ρίace πear νwἄicὰ a weapon has struck, as Π. 5. 146 κληῖδα παρʼ ἅὥμον πλῆξε ςtrνucά tἄe cοltar-tοκe γ tie ςἄομuder.

  2. of motion or extent alongside of a thing (esp. a coast, a river, a wall, dc.); ll. Il. 34 βῇ δʼ ἀκέων παρὰ θῖνα κwent αορ re sἀοre; Od. 9. 46 πολλὰ δὲ μῆλα ἔσφαζον παρὰ θῖνα πacτί- βfcedd πmadγ πθeeρ aἰοπn9 tὰe ςἀοre; Il. 2. 522 πὰρ ποταμὸν ἔναιον dwelt γ tᾶe side ῳʼ tἄe τίνer; ll. 3. 272 πὰρ ξίφεος κουλεὸν ἄωρτο 2μuπg ὁeside tHe swοrad-scatόard.
  3. of motion past a place; as ll. 11. 166, 167 οἱ δὲ παρʼ λοῦ σῆμα Il. Il. παρʼ ἐρινεὸν ἐσσεύοντο tάεγ πρed past iRe tορb gʼ l2μς, 2γαπt tᾶe 9-tree; ll. 6. 42 παρὰ τρόχον ἐξεκυλίσθη τοtted out 7pawl tἀe μweet; Π. 16. 312 οὔτα Θόαντα στέρνον γυμνωθέντα παρʼ ἀσπίδα pawεiμnnρ tβe ςἄied (implied motion, οὗτα2ctᾶrνurt at and ςtrνcέ). The derivative meaning θέγοnd (ππι in e2ces2 ῃ) is only found in Homer in the phrases πὰρ δύναμιν (l. 13.787) and παρὰ μοίραν (Od. 14. 509) but cp. the Adj. παραίσιος agaαίnst fate.

192. With a Genitive παρά properly means sideways from, aside from. As ςwith the Dative, it is used of taiπ9ς as ςwelll as ρeτsοns (whereas in later Greek it is practically restricted to ρeτsοns). On the other hand it is confined in Homer to the local sense; thus it is found with Verbs meaning tυ ρο, τiππg, taάe, kdc. not (as afterςwards) with ἀκούω, μανθάνω, οἶδα, or the like. An apparent exception is-

Il. 11. 794 εἰ δέ τινα φρεσὶν ἥσι θεοπροπίην ἀλεείνει,
καί τινά οἱ πὰρ Ζηνὸς ἐπέφραδε πότνια μήτηρ,

where however the notion of ὁriπgin9 a message is sufficiently prominent to explain the αse. So Π. 11. 603 φθεγξάμενος παρὰ νηός πendiπρ ἅκ νοίce frορm re ἄρ; and Hee. Op. 769 αἴθε γὰρ ἡμέραι εἰσὶ Διὸς πάρα, i.e. cοmiπρ fτορm ὅeμuς, The later use is to be seen in Emped. 144 θεοῦ πάρα μῦθον ἀκούσας, Xenophanes 3.1 ἁβροσύνας δὲ μαθόντες ἀνωφελέας παρὰ Λυδῶν.

The original meaning κίdeμκwaγw or at tao side fbορm is visible in some of the uses with a Gen. denoting a tὰiπ9 as Π. 4. 468 παρʼ ἀσπίδος ἐξεφαάνθη αρρeared δeγοnd (outside the ςἄelter ῃ) the ςἄietά: so probably ll. 4. 500 υἱὸν Γριάμοιο νόθον βάλε Il. Il. παρ. ἵππων ὠκειάων strμcὲ ἄiπm (aiming) past re cθariοt. So too a sςword is draςwn παρὰ μηροῦ ςideσαγς fτορ re ti9ὰ. The same meaning lies at the root of the frequent αse of παρά in reference to the act of passing from one person to another (as in παραδίδωμι and παραδέχομαι), hence of gifts, messages, etc.

It is usual to regard παρά vwith the Gen. as meaning from the side of, from beside, de chez. But this is contrary to the nature of a prepositional phrase. The Case-ending and the Stem must form a single notion, which the Preposition then modifies; hence (e. g.) παρὰ μηροῦ means beside from-the-thigh not fτοm beside-the-thigh. This is especially clear where the Preposition is joined to a Verb

Od. 19. 187 παραπλάγξασα 5ἀλείων driving-aside frοm Malaea
Il. 4.97 τοῦ κεν δὴ πάμπραωτα παρʼ ἀγλαὰ δῶρα φέροιο

the rhythm connects παρά with φέροιο rather than vwith τοῦ-you wilL bring- aside ( = transfer) from him. So with other Prepositions.

ἀπὸ Γροίης off from Troy, not from off Troy
κατʼ οὐρανοῦ down from heaven, not from under heaven.

As to ὄππα ςawith the Gen.πfτοm ιnder, see § 204. μνετά.