περ

Book Nav

main

353. The enclitic Particle περ is evidently a shorter form of the Preposition πέρι, which in its adverbial use has the meaning ὑeγοπd, eπcecdiπρξν (§ 185). Accordingly περ is iπnteπsίνe, denoting that the word to which it is suαbjoined is true in a high degree, in its fullest sense, etc.

Il. 23. 79 λάχε γεινόμενόν περ
was my fate even from my birth

Od. Il. 315 μή μʼ ἔτι νῦν κατέρυκε λιλαιόμενόν περ ὁδοῖο.

Od. 8. 187 στιβαρώτερον οὐκ ὀλίγον περ.

Il. 2. 236 οἴκαδέ περ σὺν νηυσὶ νεώμεθα (= let us have nothing short of return home).

Il. 8. 452 σφῶίν δὲ πρίν περ τρόμος ἔλλαβε φαίδιμα γυῖα
even beforehand trembling seized your knees.

Il. 13. 72 ἀρίγνωτοι δὲ θεοί περ
gods, surely, are easily known

Od. 4. 34 αἴ κέ ποθι Ζεὺς | ἐξοπίσω περ παύσῃ ὀἰζύος.

So with Relatives, ὅς περ tᾶe νeτγ one μwὰο, ὡς ἔσεταί περ (AAttic ὥσπερ καὶ ἔσται) 7oat as it νwitt ὁe, ὅτε περ7ut μκwen. Also εἴ περ eνen g, and ἠέ περ or ᾖ περ eνen than.

Usually, however, περ implies a sense of opposition ; i.e. it emphasises something as true in spite ὁff a preceding assertion.

οὔ τι δυνήσεαι ἀχνύμενός περ
you will not be able however much vexed

πολέες περ ἐόντες many as they are

πίνοντά περ ἔμπης
even though drinking, etc.

and with Substantives,

Il. 20. 65 τά τε στυγέουσι θεοί περ
which even the gods (gods though they are) dread.

So Il. 1. 353

ἐπεί μʼ ἔτεκές γε, μινυνθάδιόν περ ἐόντα
since you are my mother, short-lived though I am.

Or it may imply compensation for the absence of something else.

Il. 1. 508 ἀλλὰ σύ πέρ μιν τῖσον do you honor him (since Agamemnon will not)

17. 121 αἴ κε νέκυν περ Ἀχιλλῆί προφέρωμεν γυμνόν· ἀτὰρ τά γε τεύχε κτλ.

The intensive καί and περ are often used ςwith the same sword or phrase.

καὶ ὀψέ περ
even though late

καὶ πρὸς δαίμονά περ
eνen though it were against a higher power

καὶ πεζός περ ἐῶν
though only on foot

εἰ δὲ καὶ Eκτορά περ φιλέεις, etc.

So with οὁδέ not even, as οὐδὲ θεοί περ not even the gods, οὐδʼ ὥς περ not eνen so, οὐδέ νυ σοί περ not even to you.

The combination καί περ (or καίπερ) occurs in Homer in one place only, viz. Od. 7. 224 καί περ πολλὰ παθόντα.

When καί precedes a word followed by περ, it is always = even (not aπd). Hence in Π. 5. 1 35 καὶ πρίν περ μεμαώς means eνen though formerly eager, and is to be taken with the preceding line, not with the succeeding δὴ τότε μιν κτλ. Thus there is no anacoluthon, as is generally assumed.