Prepositions with the Genitive

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179. Where the Genitive with a Preposition is not ablatival, it may usually be explained in twο ways, between which it is not always easy to choose.

  1. It may be derived from one of the uses with Verbs discussed in ἤη 149-151. e.g. the Genitive in-
    ὅς τʼ εἶσιν διὰ δουρός which gοes through the wοοd

    is probably the Genitive of the space within which motion takes place. For εἶσιν διὰ δουρός has the same relation to πεδίοιο διώκειν and πεδίοιο διαπρήσσειν, that ἦλθεν εἰς Γροίην has to Γροίην ἢλθεν and Γροίην εἰσῆλθεν.

  2. It may be of the same kind as the Genitive with a Noun: e.g. the construction with ἀντί may be the same as with the Adverbs ἄντα, ἀντίον, ἀντία, 8Sʼc., and the Adjectives ἀντίος, ἐναν- τίος, 8ʼc, and this is evidently not akin to any ob the construc- tions ςwith Verbs, but falls under the general rule that a Noun or Pronoun qualifying a Noαn is put in the Genitive (ἢ 147).

    It is held by Curtius (ίνκcίαdmmtίοπκ, c. 17) that the Genitive with ἀντί, πρό, διά, ὑπέρ, ὑπό, vwhen they do not necessarily imply πmοtίοn from, is of the same kind as the ordinary Genitive ςwith Adjectives and Adverbs, i.e. the true Genitive. This vieςw is supported by the hmproper Prepositions, which nearly al govern the Genitive, whatever their meaning : .ῃ. ἐγγύς and ἑκάς, ἐντός and ἐκτός, ἄντα, μέχρι, ἕνεκα, 8Cc. For in these cases the construction evidently does not depend upon the local relation involved, but is of the same kind as in δέμας πυρός, χάριν Γρώων, etc.

    On the other hand, it is pointed out by Delbrück (Synt. Forsch. iv. p. 134) that such a construction of the Genitive is unknown in Sanskrit, and this argument, which applies to πρό, ὑπό, ὑπέρ (Sanscr. ρτά, ραα, uράτί), is confirmed by the Latin construction of pro, sub, super with the Abl. He wοuld allow the supposition however in the case of ἀντί (the Sanskrit άπnti being an Adverb), and perhaps διά ; regarding these words as having become brepο- sitions more recently than the others.