Forms in -θεν and -ως

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159. The ending -θεν expresses the point from which motion takes place; hence it is common in construction with verbs of motion, and after the prepositions ἐξ and ἀπό. Cp. alsο-

Il. 3. 276 Ζεῦ πάτερ Ἴδηθεν μεδέων
ruling from Ida

Il. 8.397 Ἴδηθεν ἐπεὶ ἴδὲ
when he saw, looking from Ida

Il. 15.716 Ἕκτωρ δὲ πρύμνηθεν ἐπεὶ λάβε
when he had got hold from (i.e. in the direction from, beginning with) the stern

So ἑτέρωθεν οn the other side, ἀμφοτέρωθεν on both sides.

Of time; ἠῶθεν frοm (beginning with) dawn.

In a metaphorical sense; of an agent (regarded as the source of action).

Il. 15. 489 Διόθεν βλαφθέντα βέλεμνα

Od. 16.447 οὐδέ τί μιν θάνατον τρομέεσθαι ἄνωγα ἔκ γε μνηστήρων· θεόθεν δʼ οὐκ ἔστʼ ἀλέασθαι.

Also Il. 10.68 πατρόθεν ἐκ γενεῆς ὀνομάζων naming from (on the side of) the father. And in two phrases, Il. 7.39, 226 οἰόθεν οἶος quite alone, and Il. 7. 97 αἰνόθεν αἰνῶς quite terribly—where the force of the ending is indistinct.

It is to be observed that (except in the personal pronouns) this form is not found with verbs meaning to deprive of, free from, defend, surpass, or with the corresponding adjectives and adverbs. Hence it cannot be held to be equivalent to an ablative (§ 152), and probably differed from the ablative in expressing motion from rather than separation.

On the other hand, the pronominal forms ἐμέθεν, σέθεν, ἕθεν are freely construed

  1. Αs Ablatives: πρὸ ἕθεν, ὑπὲρ σέθεν, ἄνευ ἐμέθεν; and with a Comparative, Il. 1.114 οὔ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων, etc. Cp. also Il. 9. 419 μάλα γάρ ἑθεν . . . χείρα ἑὴν ὑπερέσχε.
  2. Αs true Genitives: Il. 4.169 ἀλλά μοι αἰνὸν ἄχος σέθεν ἔσσεται I shall have terrible grief for you; with verbs of hearing (Il. 2.26, etc.), remembering (Od. 4.592), caring (Il. 1.180 σέθεν δʼ ἐγὼ οὐκ ἀλεγίζω), reaching or touching (ἀντιάζω, πειράζω, etc.); and with ἄσσον, πρόσθε, ἄντα, ἀντίον, ἕνεκα, ἕκητι.

160. The εnding -ως is generally derived from the ablative of stems in -ο (§ 110), although -ōt would not regularly become -ως, and the transition of meaning is not a very easy one. The chief examples in common use in Homer are-

  • From pronominal stems: ὥς, τῶς, πῶς, ὁμῶς, αὔτως, ἄλλως.
  • From stems in -ο: αἰνῶς, ἀσπασίως, ἐκπάγλως, ἐπισταμένως, θαρσαλέως, κακῶς, καρπαλίμως, κραιπνῶς, κρατερῶς, ὀτραλέως, πυκινῶς, ῥη­ϊδίως, στερεῶς, στυγερῶς, χαλεπῶς, μεγάλως, καλῶς, αἰσχρῶς, φίλως.
  • From other stems: πάντως, λιγέως, ἀτρεκέως, ἀσφαλέως, ἀφραδέως, περιφραδέως, διηνεκέως, ἐνδυκέως, νωλεμέως, προφρονέως, ἐπικρατέως, ταχέως.

It will be seen that comparatively few of these adverbs come from the short familiar adjectives. Thus καλῶς, αἰσχρῶς, μεγάλως, ταχέως, φίλως are very rare in Homer; and there is no adverb of the kind from δεινός, ἴσος, ὀρθός, βαρύς, ὠκύς, ὀξύς.