ἀπό

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224. The Preposition ἀπό means off, away, at a distance from. It is not used adverbially, but is common in Tmesis; as Il. 8.108 οὕς ποτʼ ἀπʼ Αἰνείαν ἑλόμην which I took from Aeneas. In Composition it generally gives the Verb the notion of separating; e.g. ἀπο-κόπτω is not I have at a distance, but I separate by hewing; so ἀπεκόσμεον cleared away (Od. 7.232), and similarly ἀποδύω, ἀποβάλλω, ἀπολούω, ἀπορρήγνυμι, ἀποκαπύω (all used in Tmesis). Hence we must explain Il. 19.254 ἀπὸ τρίχας ἀρξάμενος cutting hair as an ἀπαρxh, or first offering; cp. Od. 3.446, 14.422.

Sometimes ἀπό has the force of restοratiοn or return, as in ἀπο-δίδωμι, ἀπο-νοστέω (cp. ἄν acέμwardς). So ἀπο-ειπεῖν means either to speak out or to forbid, refuse. In a few cases it has an intensive force, as in ἀπομηνίω, ἀπήχθετο, ἀποθαυμάζω.

With the Genitive ἀπό generally expresses motion away from, not implying previous place within the obect (whereas ἐξ means proceeding from). It is also used of position.

Il. 8.16 ὅσον οὐρανός ἐστʼ ἀπὸ γαίης as far as heaven is from earth
Od. 1.49 φίλων ἄπο πήματα πάσχει suffers woes far from his friends; metaphorically, Il. 1.562 ἀπὸ θυμοῦ μᾶλλον ἐμοὶ ἔσεαι you will be the more out of favor with me
ἀπὸ δόξης away from expectation.

This Gen. is clearly ablatival.