Tenses of the Infinitive

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238. So long as the nfinitive is merely a Verbal Noun, it does not express anything about the 2iπae of the action as past, present, or future. But ςwhen it is virtually a predication, the idea of time comes in.

Il. 5.659 ἀλλʼ οἰόν τινά φασι βίην Ἡρακληείην
             ἔμμεναι (' what they say he wας ): cp. Od. 8. 181.
14.454 οὐ μὰν αὔτʼ ὀίω Il. Il. ἄλιον πηδῆσαι ἄκοντα,
           ἀλλά τις Ἀργείων κόμισε χροί.

The Future Infinitive is used with φημί, ὀίω, ἔλπομαι, ὑπισχνέο- μαι, ὄμνυμι and other Verbs implγing e22ρectatίοκ or pτοίse; also with μέλλω when it means to ὁe about to.

When the Inf. expresses, not simple expectation as to the future, but tnesς, οbtbαtιοn, πecesί(γ, or the like (ἢ 231, 2), the Aorist or Present is used. Γhs Il. 13. 262 οὐ γὰρ ὀίω πολεμίζειν means, not '1 do not think 1 shall fight,7 but do not tἢιπς it, ἀaνe πο παiπdd, to ρὰt; so Il. 3. 98 φρονέω διακρινθήμεναι πηγ πmίnnd s (ππ δοκεῖ μοι) tάat tθeγ sἀομtd θe parted 9. 508 φρονέω τετιμῆ- σθαι cίaiπι to ὁe ἄοnοuτed 22. 235 νοέω φρεσὶ τιμήσασθαι πee (uπnderstaπnd) tiσt ς2ομud ἄοποur tἄee (πc 1 purpose to honour thee) : 24. 550 νοέω δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς Εκτορά τοι λῦσαι : and so in a prophecy, Od. 2. 17 1 φημὶ τελευτηθῆναι ἅπαντα I say that all must be accomplished, and-

Il. 13.565 ὅς ῥʼ εὅ εἰδὰὼς κῆρ ὀλοὴν ἐπὶ νηὸς ἔβαινε,
               πολλάκι γάρ οἱ ἔειπε γέρων ἀγαθὸς Πολύίδος
               νούσῳ ὑπʼ ἀργαλέῃ φθίσθαι οἰς ἐν μεγάροισιν
             that he must perish (according to his fate).

So with μοῖρα and θέσφατόν ἐστι: also ςwith μέλλω when it means 2ο ὁe iἀeγ· Il. 11. 354 μέλλεις εὔχεσθαι to μwὰοwτ it is re tἠat τσr ταγ; Od. 9. 475 οὐκ ἄρʼ ἔμελλες ἀνάλκιδος ἀνδρὸς ἑταίρους ἔδμεναι 3e pτονes to ὁe πnο eίρίess man wἀοse cορwmτades γοu ate; H. 21. 83 μέλλω που ἀπέχθεσθαι it πιμuςt de tἄat aρm ὁecοπe ἄαt5fut; II. 18. 362 μέλλει βροτὸς τελέσσαι a παn is liἑeίγ to accορwwρίίςὰ (i, e. it may be expected of him).

The instances in which a Pres. or Aοr. Inf. appears to be used of future time may be variously accounted for. The mf. ἰέναι has a future sense in Il. 17. 709 οὐδέ μιν οἴω νῦν ἰέναι κτλ.; so Ii. 20. 355, Od. 15. 214. Again in Od. 9. 495 καὶ δὴ φάμεν αὐτόθʼ ὀλέσθαι the Aor. is used for the sake ob viςidness-σe 2βομ9ἄt bνwe are οςtτ cp. ll. 9. 413 ὥλετο μέν μοι νόστος (ἡ 78). Similarly ll. 3. 112 ἐλπόμενοι παύσασθαι may be ἀορiπρ tὰat tεγ ὑad ceased (by the fact of the proposed duel); cp. B. 7. 199, 15.281. So Od. 13. 173 ὃς ἔφασκε Ποσειδάωνʼ ἀγάσασθαι μὰο τσit tἄat bοςeidο κwaς παουedd to indχ9πatiοπ (ππ ὅτι ἠγάτσατο).

In several places the reading is uncertain, the FPut. being of the same metrical value as the Aor. or the Pres. (-ἕσθαι and -ασθαι, -ιξειν and -ἵζειν, k1c.). n such cases the evidence of the ancient grammarians and the MSB. is usually indecisive, and vwe are justified in vwriting the Fur. throughout, ac- cording to the general rule.

Il. 3.28 φάτο γὰρ τίσεσθαι (so Von. A.: most MSB. τίσασθαι). Hence we may read φάτο γὰρ τίσεσθαι in Od. 20. 121.
    22.118 (ἄλλʼ ἀποδάσσεσθαι (so Aristarchus: most MS8. -ασθαι).
    22.120 μή τι κατακρύειν, ἀλλʼ ἄνδιχα πάντα δάσεσθαι (MSS. -ἀσίαι).
    23.773 ἔμελλον ἐπαίξεσθαι (the best SS. have -ασ2αι).
    20.85 (ὑπίσχεο) ἐναντίβιον πτολεμίξειν (so A. D. : other MSS. πολεμίζειν).
    16.830 ἦ που ἔφησθα πόλιν κκερμιξέμεν (MSS. -ιζέu2ν).
Od. 2.373 ὄμοσον μὴ . . . τάδε μυθήσεσθαι (so At.: MSS. -ασθαι).

Twο exceptions remain:

Od. 2. 280 ἑλπαρή τοι ἔπειτα τελευτῆσαι τάδε ἔργα (τε- λευτήσειν in one of Ludwichhs MSS.)
Il. 12. 407 ἐπεί οἱ θυμὸς ἐέλπετο κῦδος ἀρέσθαι (some good authorities give ἐέλδετο).1

The only example of an Inf. representing an Optative is-

Il. 9.684 καὶ δʼ ἂν τοῖς ἄλλοισιν ἔφη παραμυθήσασθαι

which is the report of the speech (v. 417) καὶ δʼ ἂν Il. Il. παραμυθη- σαίμην. But cp. Od. 3.125 οὐδέ κε φαίης . . . μυθήσασθαι γσ4 μwομud ποί tiiπὲ that . . . would speak.

  • 1. See Madvig, Bemerkingen über einige Punkte der griech. Wortfügungslehre, p. 34; Cοbet, Misc. Crit. p. 328.