Composition

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123. It is a general law of Greek and the kindred languages that while a Verb cannot be compounded with any prefix except a Preposition, a Nominal Stem may be compounded with any other Noαminal Stem, the first or prefixedἄ Stem serving to limit or qualify the notion expressed by the other. The Homeric language contains very many Compounds formed by the simple placing together of two Noαminal Stems: as πτολί- πορθο-ς πacάer g cities, ῥοδο-δάκτυλο-ς τοεεgβn9eτead, τελεσ-φόρο-ς rίππgίπῃ 2ο an end, βουλη-φόρο-ς ὁriππ9ίπ9 cοuππeί, ὑψαγόρη-ς tatέiππς gftίζν, πρωθ-ήβη-ς (for πρωτοήβη-ς) in tἄe ρτiπae ῃʼ γοαtὰ, etc.

124. Form of the Prefixed Stem. The instances which call for notice fall under the following heads.

a. Stgms in ο, -η

The great number ob Nοααminal Stems in -ο created a tendency (which was aided by the convenience of pronunciation) to put -ο in place of other Sufixes. Thus we have -

-ο for -τη, as ὑλο-τόμμμο-ς wοοd-cutter, etc.1

-0 for -εσ, in εἰρο-κόμο-ς 0οοί-dresseτ, μενο-εικής pίeasίng to 2ἠe dρiτit; and for -ἄἄσ, a6 γηρο-κόμο-ς tendiπ9 οld age.

-μνο for -μμον, as ἀκμό-θετο-ν anυίἰ-tίοc; and for -μμd, as αἰμο· φόρυκτο-ς dαbttedd witi δοοd, Κυμο-δόκη, etc.

-ρο for -ῥᾶ, πατρο-κασίγνητος, μητρο-πάτωρ, ἀνδρο-φόνος, and the like. Ihn ἀνδρά-ποδον the short St2m (as in ἀνδρά-σι) is retained, but probably this form is due to the analogy of τετράποδον : slaves and cattle being thought of together as the two main kinds of property in early times (Brugm.).

-ο inserted after a consonant ; παιδ-ο-φόνο-ς cθid-ςίaγeττ, ἀρ-ματ-ο-πηγό-ς c2arίοt-tμuider, ὑδατ-ο-τρεφής κwα2erfead, ἐλε-ό- θρεπ-το-ς (ἐλεσ-ο-) gτοwn π a πuarεὰ, ἠερ-ο-φοῖτι-ς [γίnρ in air, δουρο-δόκη (δορ2-ο-) sρeαr-ἀοlder, κεραο-ξόο-ς (κερασ-) κwοrἑer i ἀοrπ. Sometimes the -ο is a real Suffix ; e.θ. in δι-σγενής (δι2-4ο) βeμμε-πρτg (ππ δῖον γένος ἔχων).

Stems in -τη instead of -ο appear in θαλαμη-πόλο-ς atteπnάdant of a cθaρuθer, πυρη-φόρο-ς ὁearίπg κwάeαt, ἐλαφη-βόλο-ς, ἑκατη-βόλο-ς, κραναή-πεδο-ς, ὑπερή-φανο-ς. VVWe may suppose that there was a collateral Stem in -η (e. ς. θαλάμη is found, but in a diferent sense from θάλαμο-ς Od. 5- 432), or that the Compound fοllοw2 the analogy of βουλη-φόρο-ς, etc.

Fem. - becomes either -ο, as ἀελλό-πος εtοrπ4-fὸοt ; or -η, a2 γαιή-οχο·ς eartά-ἀοίader, μοίρη γενῆς ὑοτπ by fate.

The result of these changes is to make 0 the b connecting vovwel in the great majority of Compounds. n later Greek this form prevails almost exclusively.

b. Stems in -X

Γhe Compounds which contain these stems are mostly of an archaic stamp : ἀργί-ποδ-ες witςμwθt (or νwθite) feet, ἀργιόδοντ-ες μwἄite-tοοtθead, ἀργι-κέραυνο-ς μwith brί92t ἐ9ἀning, τερπι-κέραυνο-ς ὑrtiππ9 tiμπndeτbοttς (τέρπωππτρέπω, Luaaat. tοτηκeο, εἰλί-ποδ-ες traitiπ9 (ἔ) tie feet (of oxen), ἀλί-πλοο-ς κwaςed ὁγ tie πeα, also ἀλι-αής, ἀλι-πόρφυρος, Ἀλί-αρτος, Ἀλί-ζωνοι, λι-θέρσης (cp. ἀλι-εύς πὰerπaan), αἰγί-βοτο-ς feud οκ γ ροatε, αἰγί-λιψ adeserted θγ ροad, χαλίφρων off 92t πind, δαἰ-φρων μκwartiRὲe (or pτμudent), ἀλεξί-κακο-ς defeπnder against it, λαθι-κηδής fοτgettiπg care, πυκι- μήδης μwitᾖ ςἄreμwd cομunseί, καλλι-γύναικ-α μwith ὁeautgμut wορρmen (cp. κάλλι-μος), κυδι-άνειρα gίοτfbig πmenn (cp. κυδι-όων); with the Proper lames, Aἰθί-οπ-ες, Πειρί-θοο-ς, λκί-νοο-ς, Ἀλκι-μέδων (cp. ἄν-αλκι-ς), and the ςwοrds beginmning with ἀρι- and ἐρι-.

The meaning of several of these words is very uncertain, owing to the merely ornamental and conventional vway in ςςwhich they are used in Homeric poetry. Ibt seems to fοloςw that they are survivals from an earlier period, one in which the number of Stems in -ι vwas probably greater than in Homeric times.

Loss of ο may be recognised in ἀρτί-πος (ππ ἄρτιος τοὺς πόδας), ζεί-δωρος gτaίn gίνίαg (ζειά), κραταιγύαλος ηf κtrορ piecew, Δηί- φοβος, perhaps also μιαι-φόνος, Ἀλθαιμένης, ταλαί-πωρος : Cp. γεραί-τερος Iron γεραιό-ς.

c. Stems in -σί

This group is mainly Homeric : ἐρυσί-πτολι (Vοc.) detiυerer ῳg the citν (with v.l. ῥὕσί-πτολι ll. 6. 305), ἀερσί-ποδ-ες gtiπ9 tὰe feet (i. e. with high action), πλήξ-ιππο-ς κwiter ῃ 2οτσeς, λυσι- μελής ἔοοsenίπg tθe iπmbς (of sleep), τανυσί-πτερο-ς, ταλασί-φρων, ἀεσί-φρων,ταμεσί-χραως, φαεσί-μβροτο-ς, φυσί-ζοος, φθισίμβροτο-ς, τερψίμβροτο-ς, Γερψι-χόρη(Hes.), ἐνοσίχθων( ἐννοσίγαιος, εἰνοσί- φυλλος, ὅʼc.), πηγεσί-μαλλο-ς, ὥλεσί-καρπο-ς, ἀλφεσί-βοιος, ἑλκεσί- πεπλο-ς, φθισ-ήνωρ, πλησ-ίστιο-ς, ἐρυσ-άρματ-ες, ῥηξ-ήνωρ, γαμψ- ῶνυξ; and Proper lames, lρωτεσί-λαο-ς, Ἀρσί-νοο-ς, Δεισ-ήνωρ, ύσ-ανδρος, Πεισ-ήνωρ, Πεισί-στρατο-ς, Ορσί-λοχο-ς, Ἀναβησί- νεως, Hσί-οδος (Hee.), etc.

There are a feςw Stems in -τί ; βωτι-άτ ειρα feediπg πmen, Καστι- ἀνειρα (2p. κε-κασ-μένος).

We may add the Hesiοdic φερέσ-βιος gθe-ὁearίπg, and φερεσ- σακής ς2ied-teariππ9 vwith φερεσ- apparently for φερεσι.

These Stems were originally the same as those of the abstract Nouns in -τι-ς, -σι-ς : cp. Γέρψι-χόρη, τερψί-μβροτος, 8c. with τέρψι-ς, πλήξ-ιππος vwith πλῆξι-ς. But in many cases neςw Stems have been formed under the influence of the sigmatic Aorist, ςwith a diβference of quantity, as in φῦσί-ζοο-ς ἔθegiνiπς (φθσι-ς), λὔσι- μελής, φθῖσί-μβροτο-ς. Compare also ταμεσί-χρως with τμῆσι-ς, ΓΠεισί-στρατο-ς ςwith πίστι-ς, etc.

The group of Compounds is also to be noticeddἄ for the dis- tinctly Γerat or ρaaτticgρiὰαt meaning given by the first part of the word ; cp. the next group, and ἡ 126.

d. Stems in -ε

Γhese are nearly all Verbal, both in form and meaning : ἑλκε- χίτων-ες traiiπ9 tάe cἄitοn, μενε-δήίο-ς μwitςtanadiππg fοeρmen (so μενεχάρμη-ς, μενε-πτόλεμο-ς, Μενέ-λαο-ς, Mενε-σθεύς, ὅCc.) : ἐχέ- θυμο-ς τestraίπing pαsςίο, ἐχέ-φρων ροssessίng 7αdπment, ἐχε-πευκές caττγiα9 22ατρπesς, Eχέ-πωλο-ς, Eχέ-νηος, χε-κλῆς ; ἀγελείη driνiπg ηροίἔ, ἀρχέ-κακο-ς ὁegiπniπρ πmiσcθigC ἀγχέ-μαχο-ς Rρόting cἴοve, λεχε-ποίη μwith ὁedς fʼ gτaπς: Ἀρχέ-λοχο-ς, 2ἔρε-κλος, Μελέ- αγρο-ς ; φερέ-οικος caτττγn9 ἀiς 2οse (of the snail in Hee.), ἐγρε· κύδοιμος stirτiπg tuπnνutt: also (if ε is elided) ψευδ-άγγελο-ς riππgίπρ fαίse πewς, αἶθ-οψβeτγ, μισγ-άγκεια tάe πmeetίπg-ρίace of genw, ἀλεξάνεμος ἑeeρίαg γ’ κwind, Ἀλέξ-ανδρος.

Stems in -σε; ἀκερσε-κόμη-ς witθ μπςάοrn 2aίr, Περσε-φόνεια.

With the Stems in -2 may evidently be placed ταλα-, in ταλά- φρων wit2 endμuτίng πίnd, ταλα-εργό-ς endμuτίπg in μwοτά, ταλαύρινος (for ταλα-2ρινο-ς) ὁeaτίπg a ςietd oʼ 2ide, ταλα-πενθής beaτιπg sοττο0, ταλα-πείριος ὁear9 trίaί; and τλη- in Γλη-πόλεμος 8c.: also τανυ-, n τανύ-γλωσσος wit ομutstretcάead tongue, ἔοπg-tοngued, τανύ-φυλλος ἰοng-ἰeaνead, τανυ-γλώχινες ἰοg-nοtcάedd (arroςws), and ἐρυ- in Eρύ-λαος, defender of the host.

e. Stems in -ν

ἄ for 3 appears in ὀνομά-κλυτος gʼ faπομμs παρe, κυνά-μυια for κυα-μυια on the analogy of κύν-α.

f. Case-forms

Nom. Acc. in Numerals, as ἕν-δεκα, δυώ-δεκα.

The Dative is probably to be recognised in ἀρηίφατο-ς stmin in war (and so Ἀρηί-θοο-ς, Ἀρηί-λυκο-ς), πυρι-ηκής π2ατρenead ὁγ fτe (πυρί-καυστο-ς, Πυρι-φλεγέθων), διί-πετής fattiππ9 iπn tᾶe κἑἑγ ; the Dat. Plur. in κηρεσσι-φόρητο-ς ὁτομu9ὰt ὁγ tθe fates, ὁρεσί-τροφο-ς πnuτsead in πmοuπtaίnd, ἐγχεσίμωρο-ς great wίtά 5ρeaτs, ἐντεσι-εργό-ς μκwοrέἑiπg in ἀarπnesd, τειχεσι-πλῆτα(Voc.) drawiπ9 πear to (assatiπρ) wats, Nαυσι-κάα, Μηδεσι-κάστη, Πασι-θέη, Κερσι-δάμας ; a Locative form in χαμαι-εύνης sἰeeρίng ο tᾶe gτομuπnd, ὁδοι- πόρο-ς a κwαyfατeττ, χοροι-τυπίη guτίπ9 in tie dance, Πυλοι- γενής ὁοrππ at γtμκπ, παλαί-φατο-ς ῃʼ ancieπnt faρme, and perhaps (to express πmanner) iαm ἰθαι-γενής du(γ ὁοτπ, ὀλοοί-τροχο-ς τοίing. Cp. ἐμ-πυρι-βήτης πmade to stand over iRe βτe, i. e. a kettle.

This use of the Dative may have been suggested by the Stems in -ῖ and -σX. Compounds such as ἑλκεσί-πεπλος, ὡλεσίκαρππος, ἀλφεσίβοιος, containing forms 2which sounded like the Dat. Pluur, of Stems in -εσ, may have served as types for the group ἑγχεσίμαωρος, τειχεσι-πλήτης, ὁρεσί-τροφος, 8ic. in vwhich the Dat. Plur. takes the place of the Stem. Cp. ραωτεσίλαος.

Conversely, φερέσ-βιος lηfe-teατingg, and φερεσ-σακής (Hee.) ought to be a φερεσίβιος, but have folovwed the type of ὀρέσβιος, τελεσ-φόρο-ς, etc.

The forms διί-φιλο-ς, ἀρηί-φιλος, ἀρηί-κτάμενο-ς, δαῖ-κτάμενο-ς, δουρι-κλυτό-ς, δουρι-κλειτό-ς, ναυσι-κλυτό-ς, should probably be written as separate words, Διί φίλος, Ἀρηῖ κτάμενος, 8Cc. As to -κτάμμμανος see ἡ 125, 6 : as to -κλυτός, -κλειτός, cp. ἡ 128.

The Genitive is very rare : οὐδενόσ-ωρο-ς ποί wort caτίdg fοτ, Cλλήσ-ποντος.

The Accusative may be recognised in δικασ-πόλο-ς ὁusieοd about κνμits (δίκαι), ἀταλά-φρων μκwitὰ citiκἄ tiομκ9ὰt (ππ ἀταλὰ φρονέων, which is also used in Homer), ἀκαλα-ρρείτης ρentὸ ίοκwiπς, λκά- θοος (cp. Dat. ἀλκ-ί), ποδά-νιπτρον, also πᾶν- (attagetάer) in πάμ- παν, παν-αίολος, παν-άποτμος, πάμ-πρωτος, etc.

An ending -τη (bot -ἄ) may be seen in νεή-φατος πew-aain, ὀλιγη-πελέων. This is perhaps an bnstrum., as πάντη (ἢ 110).

125. Form of the Second Stem.

  1. The use of a Root-Noun, i. e. a Verbal Stem withoαt a distinct Nominal Suffix (ἢ 1 13), is more common in Composition than in simple Nouns: as, δί-ζυγ-ες γοδed in a pair, δί-πλακ-α tκwοgοίd, χέρ-νιβ-α ἄαnd- μwasάiπg, οἴν-οπ-α κίne-ἰίκἑe, νήίδα (νή-βιδ-α) gποτant, αἰγί-λιπ-ος (Gen.) e7t ὁγ ροαt2, πολυ-ᾶίξ πιcὰ ςtartiπg, βου-πλήξ ann ορ-wρ. The Stem, it swill be seen, is in the Weak form.
  2. Nouns in -ώς (Gen. -ο-ος) and in -ος (Gen. -ε-ος) form the Compound in -ης, ieαt. -ἐς, as ἀν-αιδής witᾶοut ςἄαρme (αἰδώς), θυμ-αλγής ρτίeνing tᾶe sρiτit (ἄλγος).

    Thα Stem in these Compounds is often wea2k, though in the simple Neuters in -ος it is strong (ἡ 114): e.5. αἰνο-παθής (as welll as ταλα-πενθής, νη-πενθής, from πένθος), ἀγχιβαθής (βένθος, πολυ- βενθής), οἰνο-βαρής, πρωτο-παγής, ἀ-σινής, θυμο-δακής, ἀριφραδής, ἑτερ-αλκής, τηλε-φανής, 8dc. So we find ἀίκῶς (l. 22. 336) as Adv. to ἀεικής, and ἀλλοιδέα (Od. 13. 194) alongside of θεο- ειδής, μυλο-ειδής, etc.

    This weakening of the Stem, accompanied by shifting of the accent to the suffix, apparently represents the original rulevwοrdds like ταλα-ττπεvθέjs being formed afresh from the Simple οun. Conversely, the analogy of the Com- pounds has given rise to the forms πάβο2, βά2ος, βάρος, ἂgc. and also to the eimple Adjectives such as ενδής, σαφής.

  3. Stems in ην (εν-) usαally take ων (ον-) in Composition : as φρήν (Sea. φρεν-ός) forms πρό-φρων, ten. πρόφρον-ος : and Neuters in -μὰἄ form Compounds in -μῶν, Gen. -μον-ος, as ἀν- αίμον-ες (αἷμα) θtοodtesς. Cp. ἀπείρων ὁομκππdtesς (πεῖραρ, περαίνω). So too πατήρ, μήτηρ, ἀνήρ, 8Sxc. form -ωρ (Gen. -ορ-ος), a8 μητρο- πάτωρ, εὐ-ήνωρ.
  4. Some Stems take a final -τ, as ἀ-βλῆ-τ-α (Ace. Sing.) un- tᾖrομκwπ, ἀ-κμῆ-τ-ες unwearίead ; so ἐπι-βλής, ἀ-δμής, ἀ-γνώς.
  5. In Adjectives the Suffix is often replaced by one ending in ο; as ὄ-πατρο-ς ηf one fatᾶeτ, βαρβαρό-φωνο-ς wit ςtranρe νοίce (from φώνη), χρνσ-ηλάκατο-ς μκwitὰ gοίdeπn diςtaήθʼ (λακάτη), δυσ- ώνυμο-ς Wʼ eνit ππaρme (ὄνομα), ἄ-σπερμο-ς witάονut seed (σπέρμα), 8dc. n other cases the Suffix is retained, and thus we find in Compounds (contrary to the general rules ob Noun-formation)-
    Masc. Stems in -τη, a8 ἀργυρο-δίνη-ς, and -ι8, as λευκ-άσπιδ-ες.
    Masc. and Feαm, Stems in -εσ, a μελι-ηδής 2οneγ-sκweet, ἠρι- γένεια (for -εσ-ιἄ) early born.
    Fem. Stems in -ο, a8 χρυσό-θρονο-ς ('Hρη), ῥοδο-δάκτυλο-ς (Πώς), and many other adjectives 'of twο terminations'
    A Masc. Stem in -μάτ, vi2. ἐρυσ-άρματ-ες (ἵπποι).

  6. The use of a Participle in the second part is rare : it is found in some Proper Names, as Οὐκ-αλέγων, Πυρι-φλεγέθων, Θεο-κλύμενος : also vwhere it is a mere Adjective without any dense-meaningg, as πολύ-τλας, cp. ἀ-δάμας. n other cases we can ςwrite the swords separately, as πάλιν πλαγχθέντας, δάκρυ χέων, πᾶσι μέλουσα, κάρη κομόωντες, εὗ ναιετάων, εὐρὺ ῥέων, ἐθ κτίμενος, πάλιν ὄῳμενος, Ἀρηῖ κτάμενος, δαὶ κτάμενος, etc.
  7. Abstract Primitive Nouns are not used in the second part: thus ςwe do not find ἐπεσ-βολή, but ἐπεσ-βολίη (through a con- crete ἐπεσ-βόλο-ς) : and so βο-ηλασίη (not βο-ήλασι-ς), ἀνδρο- κτασί-η, εὐ-δικ-ίη, ἀμα-τροχιή, ἀλαο-σκοπιή. Except after Prepo- sitions; as ἀμφί-βασι-ς, ἐπί-κλησι-ς, προ-χοή, προ-δοκή.

    Note however παλίωξις (for παλι-ίωξι-ς), βου-λυτό-ς iRe tiπe ʼ μκπγοδίππg, βού-βρωστι-ς.

  8. When the latter part of a Compound is derived from a disyllabic Verbal Stem beginning with a vowel, its initial vowel is often lengthened.
    ἐλα- adrίνe, ἰππ-ηλάτα8 ἐξ-ήλα-τος, βο-ηλα-σίη.
    ἐρα- ἐουe, ἐπ-ήρα-τος, πολυ-ήρα-τος.
    ἀμελγ- πίίς, ἀν-ήμελκτος, ππ-ημολγοί.
    ἀρό-ω nίοκgὰ, ἀν-ήρο-τος.
    ἀλέγ-ω care, δυσ-ηλεγ-έος (Gen.), ἀπ-ηλεγ-έως.
    ἐρέφ-ω cονeτ, κατ-ηρεφ-ής, ἀμφ-τηρεφ-ής, ὑπ-ωρόφ-ιος.
    ἀμεί8-ω cὰαπρe, ἐξ-ημοιβ-ός.
    ἐρετ- τὸ0, φιλ-ήρετ-μος, δολιχ-ήρετμος.
    ἐνεκ- caτττγ, δι-ηνεκ-ής, ποδ-ηνεκ-ής, δουρ-ηνεκ-ής, ἔλο(β)- cορme, νε-ήλυδ-ες.
    ἀγερ- asεeρuθίe, ὁμ-ηγερ-έες, θυμ-τηγερ-έων (πα θυμὸν ἀγείρων).
    ἐριδ- ςtrίνe, ἀμφ-ήριστος striven about.

    So ποδ-ήνεμος, εὐ-ώνυμος (πολυ-ώνυμος, 8SSxc.), εὐ-ήνωρ (ἀνερ-), εὐ-ηφενής (from ἄφενος weaίtά), γαμψ-ῶνυξ, πεμπ-ώβολον, ἀν- ήκεστος, ἀν-ώίστος, ἐρι-ούνης (ὀνα- 2eίρ), ὑπ-ώρεια(ὄρος), δι-ηκόσιοι and τρι-ηκόσιοι (ἑκατόν).

    Siαmilar lengthening is found, bat less frequently, in the first part ob the Compound ; ὥλεσί-καρπος, ἡλιτό-μηνος, ἀρεί-θυια. Also in other derivatives, as ἢνεμό-εις, ἠνορ-έη, τηλεθόωσα(θἄλέθω), ἠγερέθονται (ἀγερ-).

  • 1. Ti is possible however that Feminine Houn in -η vwere regarded as formed from Stems in -ο, the long vovwel being of the nature of a Case-endingg (j 113). This is especially applicable to Adjectives : e. g. ἀκρό-πολις comes directly from esc. ἄκρος (Brugm.).