Thematic Present

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29. The Simple Thematic Present. The stems which fall under this description generally contain the same vowels (or diphthongs) as the strong stem of the athematic present (§§ 6, 12). They may be classed according to the stem vowel, as follows.

  1. η, Ionic for ᾱ:
    • λήθ-ε-το
      forgot
       
    • τήκομαι
      I waste away
       
    • θήγει
      sharpens
       
    • σήπεται
      is rotted
       
    • κήδει
      vexes
       

     η:

    • ἀρήγει
      helps
       
    • λήγει
      ceases
       
    • μήδεται
      devises

    The η of these stems is 'pan-Hellenic' i. e. answers to η, not ᾱ, in other dialects.

  2. ει:
    • εἴδ-ε-ται
      seems
       
    • εἶκε
      yield
       
    • λείβειν
      to pour
       
    • λείπει
      leaves
       
    • πείθω
      I persuade
       
    • στεῖβον
      trod
       
    • στείχειν
      to march
       
    • πείκετε
      comb
       
    • εἴβει
      drops
       
    • φείδεο
      spare
       
    • ἄειδε
      sing
       
    • ἄλειφε
      anointed
       
    • ἄμειβε
      exchanged
       
    • ἐρεικόμενος
      torn
       
    • ἔρειδε
      stayed
       
    • ἔρειπε
      knocked down
       
    • νειφέμεν to snow1
       

    For ἵκω I come the Doric form is εἵκω.

  3. ευ:
    • φεύγ-ω
      I fly
       
    • πεύθομαι
      I learn (by hearing)
       
    • ἐρεύγεται
      belches
       
    • ἐρεύθων
      reddening
       
    • σπεύδειν
      to hasten
       
    • ψεύδονται
      play false
       
    • εὑόμενοι
      being singed
       
    • ἐσσεύοντο
      were urged on
       
    • νεῦον
      nodded
       
    • δεύομαι
      need
       

    also, with loss of υ before the thematic vowel

    • ἔν-νεον
      swam (νεϝ-ον)
       
    • θέει
      runs
       
    • πλέων
      sailing
       
    • πνέει
      breathes
       
    • ῥέει
      flows
       
    • χέει
      pours
       
    • κλέομαι
      am famed

    The forms with ει for ε, as θεί-ειν, πλείειν, πνείων, ἐγ-χείῃ, (for θέ-ειν, etc.) should probably be written with ευ, θεύ-ειν, πλεύ-ειν, etc.

  4. ερ (ρε):
    • δέρκ-ο-μαι
      I behold
       
    • τέρπειν
      to rejoice
       
    • πέρθετο
      was sacked
       
    • ἐέργει
      confines
       
    • τέρσεται
      is dried
       
    • ἕρπει
      creeps
       
    • σπέρχουσι
      urge
       
    • ἔρρων
      sweeping
       
    • δέρον
      flayed
       
    • θέρεσθαι
      to be warmed
       
    • ῥέπε
      sank downwards
       
    • ἔπρεπε
      shone
       
    • τρέπε
      turned
       
    • τρέφει
      nurtures
       
    • στρέφει
      twists
       

    ελ:

    • ἔλπ-ο-μαι
      I hope
       
    • μέλπεσθαι
      to play
       
    • ἕλκει
      draws
       
    • ἄμελγε
      milked
       
    • κέλομαι
      I command
       
    • πέλει
      turns
       
    • ἐθέλω
      I am willing

    ρῑ from ερ appears in

    τρῑβ-έμεναι
    to rub
    (Latin ter-o)

    χρῖ-ον
    anointed
    (Sanskrit gharsh-ati)

    βρῖθον
    were heavy

    ῐρ (ρῐ, ρῑ) for appears in certain combinations

    • κίρ-νημι (§ 17)
       
    • κρίνω
       
    • κρῐ-τός (cerno, certus)
       
    • ῥίζα for ϝρδ-ι̯α
       
    • δρί-ον for δρϝ-ον (δρῦ-ς)
       
    • κρῑός (Latin cervus)
       
    • κριθή for κρσ-θη2
       
  5. εν:
    • πέν-ε-σθαι
      to labour
       
    • στένει
      groans
       
    • μένω
      I wait
       
    • φθέγγεο
      call out
       
    • ἐλέγχει
      reproves
       
    • σπένδων
      making libation
       

    εμ:

    • πέμπω
      I send
       
    • ἐπι-μέμφομαι
      I blame
       
    • τέμει (Il. 13.707)
      cuts
       
    • δέμον
      built
       
    • βρέμει
      roars
       
    • νέμει
      apportions
       
    • ἔ-τρεμε
      trembled
       
  6. ε:
    • λέγ-ε
      told
       
    • ἔχ-ω
      I have
       
    • ἔδει
      eats
       
    • ἕπεται
      follows
       
    • πέτεται
      flies
       
    • δέχομαι
      I receive
       
    • ἔνν-επε
      say
       
    • ἔ-στεφε
      set as a covering
       

    with loss of σ

    τρεῖ (τρέει, for τρεσ-ει, cp. ἄ-τρεσ-τος)
    trembles

    ζεῖ (ζέει)
    boils

    νέομαι (cp. νόσ-τος)
    I return

    The thematic forms of εἰμί, viz. ἔον, optative ἔοι, participle ἐών, belong to this head, since ἐσ- is the strong stem. So too κέονται (for κει-ονται), 3rd plural of κεῖ-μαι.

    ω (instead of η) appears in

    τρώγ-ειν (τρᾰγ-)
    to gnaw

    διώκειν
    to chase

    Both forms appear to be derivative (with suffixed γ, κ, § 45): τρώ-γω may be connected with τορ-εῖν (§ 31.4). διώ-κω is related to δίε-μαι (§ 11): it has been supposed to be a thematic perfect, with loss of reduplication (i.e. from *δε-δίω-κα).

    ῡ appears in

    τρῡ́χ-ουσι
    waste away

    ἀνα-ψῡ́χ-ειν
    to cool

    ἐρῡ́κ-ει
    restrains

    These also are derivative (§ 45).

    ο appears in λόε washed (Od. 10.361, H. Apoll. 120), infinitive λοῦσθαι (Od. 6. 216). λο- is for λοϝ-, cp. Latin lav-ere. A present *λούω is inferred from the form λούεσθαι (Il. 6.508 = 15.265), for which we may read λοέεσθαι (from the derivative present λοέω).

30. Thematic present with weak stem. Of this formation there are a few instances.

  • ἄγ-ω
    I drive, bring
    (aorist ἤγ-ᾰγον)
     
  • ἄχομαι
    am vexed
    (aorist ἤκ-ᾰχε)
     
  • μάχονται
    fight
     
     
  • βλάβεται
    fails, breaks down
     
  • βόλεται
    wishes
     
  • ὄρονται
    watch
     
  • ὄθομαι
    care
     
  • ἀΐεις
    does hear
     
  • ἀπο-δρύφοι (optative)
    tear off
     
  • ἄρχει
    leads
  • ἄγχε choked
     

also the thematic forms of εἶμι viz. imperfect ἤ-ϊον, opative ἴοι, participle ἰών. Note that γράφω is not found in Homer except in the aorist ἔγραψα.

The forms βόλεται (Il. 11.319), ἐβόλοντο (Od. 1.234), βόλεσθε (Od. 16.387) were restored by Wolf; see Buttmannʼs Lexil. s. ν.

The form βλάβεται (Il. 19.82, 166, Od. 13.34) occurs in gnomic passages only, where an aorist would be equally in place (§ 78.2).

ὄρονται (Od. 14.104), ὄροντο (Od. 3.471) occur in the phrase ἐπὶ δʼ ἀνέρες ἐσθλοὶ ὄρονται, where ἐπὶ ὄρονται seems to be = "act as ἐπίουροι" "are in charge."

ἀΐω only occurs as a present in the phrase οὐκ ἀΐεις; = have you not heard? Elsewhere ἄϊον is used as an aorist (Schulze, K. Z. xxix. 249).

A present δρύφω cannot be inferred with certainty from the optative ἀποδρύφοι (Il. 23.187, 24.21), which may be an aorist.

The forms ἄρχω, ἄγχω are difficult because original ᾱρχ-, ᾱγχ- would shorten the vowel (before a semi-vowel and mute), and consequently the stem would be indistinguishable from original ᾰρχ-, ᾰγχ-. That in ἄρχ-ω the stem is weak may be inferred from the nouns ἀρχ-ός, ἀρχ-ή (§ 109); the ο-form may be found in ὄρχαμος, the strong form possibly in ἔρχ-ομαι. Again ἄγχ-ω may be identifed with Sanskrit áh-ati (for ń̥gh-atί): the strong form being ἐγχ- in ἔγχ-ελυς (De Saussure, Mém. p. 276 ff.).

  • 1. so to be read instead of νῑφέμεν in Il. 12.280.)
  • 2. hordeum, O. Germ gersta (Meyer, G. G. p. 35: Thurneysen, K. Z. xxx. 352).