Tenses of Participles

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244. The distinction between the present and aorist participle has already been touched upon in §§ 7677, and the meaning of the perfect participle in § 28.

It may be remarked here, as a point of difference between the two kinds of verbal noun, that the aorist participle almost always represents an action as past at the time given by the verb (e.g. ὣς εἰπὼν κατʼ ἄρʼ ἕζετο having thus spoken he sat down), whereas the aorist infinitive generally conveys no notion of time. This however is not from the participle itself conveying any notion of past time. Indeed it is worth notice that the participles which are without tense meaning are chiefly aorists in form (§ 243.1).

The future participle is used predicatively with verbs of motion.

ἦλθε λυσόμενος
came to ransom

καλέουσʼ ἴε
went to call

ἦγʼ ἐπικουρήσοντα

ἐπέδραμε τεύχεα συλήσων, etc.

The exceptions to this rule are

  1. ἐσσόμενος future

    Il 1.70 τά τʼ ἐσσόμενα πρό τ’ ἐόντα
               things future and past

    Il. 2.119 καὶ ἐσσομένοισι πυθέσθαι

  2. ἐπιβησόμενος

    Il. 5.46 (16.343) νύξʼ ἵππων ἐπιβησόμενον

    Il. 23.379 αἰεὶ γὰρ δίφρου ἐπιβησομένοισιν ἐΐκτην

    But see § 41.

  3. Il. 18.309 καί τε κτανέοντα κατέκτα, see § 63.
     
  4. Od. 11.608 αἰεὶ βαλέοντι ἐοικώς
                       like one about to cast.