Prepositions with Oblique Cases

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178. Prepositions are frequently used in Greek ςwith the Accusative, the locatival and instru- mental Dative, and the ablatival Genitive; much less commonly (if at all) with the ire Genitive.

It may be shown (chiefly by comparison with Sanscrit) that the government ob Cases by Prepositions belongs to a later stage of the language than the use of Prepositions with Verbs. In the first instance the Case vwas construed directly ςwith the Verb, and the Preposition did no more than qualify the Verbal meaning. β.9. in such a sentence as εἰς Γροίην ἦλθε the Ace. Γροίην originally went with ἢλθε. f hoςwever the construction Γρδίην ἦλθε ceased to be usual except with εἰς, the Preposition wοuld be felt to be necessary for the Ace., i. e. would 'govern' it.

In Homer we find many instances of a transitional character, in which a Case-form which appears to be governed by a Prepo- sition may equally swell be construed directly ςwith the Verb,- modified, it may be, in meaning by the Preposition.

Thus we have ἀμφί with the Dat. in the recurring form-

ἀμφὶ δʼ ἄρʼ ὥμοισιν βάλετο ξίφος

but the Preposition is not necessary for the Case, as we see from its absence in τόξʼ ὥμοισιν ἔχων, etc., and again from forms such as

ἀμφὶ δὲ χαῖται | ὥμοις ἀίσσονται,
περὶ μὲν ξίφος ἀργυρόηλον | ὥμοιίν βαλόμην

where the Preposition is best taken in the adverbial use. Cp. Il. 17.523 ἐν δέ οἱ ἔγχος | νηδυίοισι μάλʼ ὀξὺ κραδαινόμενον λύε γυῖα, where ἐν is adverbial.

Again, we seem to have ἀμφί governing the Accusative in-

Il. 11.482 ὥς ῥα τότʼ ἀμφʼ Dδυσῆα . . . Γρῶες ἕπον

But ἀμφί must be taken with ἕπον, as in Il. 11.776 σφῶί μὲν ἀμφὶ βοὸς ἔπετον κρέα. So in ὑπὸ ζυγὸν γαγε brought under the yoke the supposition of Tmesis is borne out by the form ὕπαγε ζυγὸν ὠκέας ἵππους. And in the line-

Il. 1.53 ἐννῆμαρ μὲν ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὥχετο κῆλα θεοῖο

the rhythm is against taking ἀνὰ στρατόν together ( 357.1), and points therefore to ἀνόχετο.

Again, the ablatival Genitive in-

ἄλθʼ ἐξ ἁλός cαπe οtfοm tie sea

may be explained like τείχεος ἐξελθεῖν, 8Sc.; and in νηὸς ἀπὸ πρύμνης χαμάδις πέσε like νηὸς ἀποθρύσκων, and numerous similar constructions.

Thus the history of the usage of Prepositions confirms the general principle laid down in a previous chapter (ἡ 131), that the oblique Cases, with the exception of the true Genitive, are primarily construed with Verbs, and that consequently the construction of these Cases with Nouns and (we may nοw add) Prepositions is always of a derivative kind.