Function of the Case Endings

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131. The Case-Endings and Adverbial Endings serve (as has been said in ἡ 90) to shoς\w the relation in which the ςwοrds to which they are suffixed (Nouns, Pronouns, Adverbs, 8c.) stand to the Verb ob the Sentence.

This relation may be of three kinds

  1. Γhα Noun or Pronoun may express the Subject of the Verb : or rather (since a Subect is already given by the Persοn- Ending) it may ηuαtgb or d ῃπe the Subject so given. 5.ς. in the sentence βασιλεὺς δίδω-σι tθe-ίn9 2εgiνes βασιλεύς explains the Subiect given by the Ending -σσσι.
  2. Thα Noun 8Sdc. may qualify the Predicate given by the Stem of the yVerb. θ. g. in ταῦτα δίδω-σι, ἐμοὶ δίδω-σι, καλῶς δίδω-σι, ἀπο-δίδω-σι the Noun (Pronoun, Adverb, Preposition) qualifies the meaning expressed in the Stem διδω-.

    Constructions of these tvwο kinds are found in Sentences vwhich involrve the adddition of one vwοrd only to the Verb. Those of the second kind might be caleddd b Adverbial -using the term in the vwidest sense, for a vwοrd construed vwith a Verb-Stem.

    Note that a Nominative may be used 'adverbially': e.g. βασιλεύς ἑσ-τι may mean hs-ιs king (as vwell as tis king e-ιs). See ἦ 162.

  3. The Noun etc., may be connected with, and serve to qualify, another Noun or Adverbial ςwοrd. .9. in the sentences βασι- λέως υἱὸς δίδωσι, Κύρου βασιλέως περιγίγνεται, the word βασιλέως is not connected ςwith the Verb, but with a Noun.

    If the former constructions are 'Adverbial,ʼ these might be called 'Ad- nominal' or 'Adjectival.ʼ The Sentences in which they are found must contain at least t0ο vwοrds besides the Verb; they are therefore of a higher order of structure than the tςwo former kinds.

    From these relations, agggahn, more complex forms of structure are derived in several vways, which it swill be enough to indicate in the briefest manner.

    A Verb compounded with a Preposition becomes for the purposes of construction a neςw Verb, vwith a syntax of its own.

    Similarly, the phrase formed by a Verb and a Noun (Case- form or Adverb) may be equivalent in the construction to a- single Verb, and may take a further Adverb, or govern Cases of CNouns accordingly. 6. ς. in κακὰ ῥέζει τινά 2e dοeς eνit to κορme one the Ace. τινά is governed by the phrase κακὰ ῥέζει : in τίεν ἶσα τέκεσσι ἀοnομured tike ἄiς cRidreπ the Dat.τέκεσσι lbs governed by τίεν ἴσα.

    Again, the new Case-form or Adverb so b governed b by a Verb and Noun may belong in sense to the Noun. Thus in the sentence μέγʼ ἔξοχος ἔπλετο e i gτeatlγ emiπent, since ἔξοχος expresses the meaning which μέγα is intended to qualify, we may consider that practically μέγα is construed with ἔξοχος alone. Evidently a qualification of this kind will generally apply only to an Adjective1, (just as the degrees of comparison are essentially adjectival). Ihn this way it comes about that an Adverb may in general be used to qualify an Adjective; and that very many Adjectives and Adverbs bgovernʼ the same Cases as the Verbs which correspond to them in meaning. 6. g. ion συί εἴκελος ἀλκήν the Adj. εἴκελος takes the construction of a Verb meaning to be like.

    In a strictly scientific treatment of the Cases the various constructions vwith the Verb should come before the constructions vwith Hοuns and Pre- positions. Such a treatment, hovwever, vwould have the inconvenience of frequently separating uses of the same Case which are intixnately connected. d. g. the construction ἀλγεῖ τὴν κεφαλήν (2) cannot vwell be separated from the extension of the same construction in μέγας ἐστὶ τὸ σῶμα (3). The Homina- tive, too, is used not only as the Subject, but also as the Predicate, or part of it. Ti vwi1 be best therefore to take the several Cases in succession, and to begin vwith the 'οblique' Cases.

  • 1. In later Greek Adverbs are constantly used to qualify substantives: as ὁ ἀεὶ βασιλεύς, ὁ πρὶν χρόνος, etc. But this use only becomes possible when vwe have the Article to show how the Adverb is to be understοοd.