loss of initial σ and consonantal ι

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397. The traces ob these sounds in the metre ob Homer are chiefly of interest for the purpose of comparison ςwith the facts relating to f.

Γhe effects of initial σ may be seen in a few cases of the non-elision of prepositions : ἐπι-άλμενος (Let. αίίο), ἀμφί-αλος (Luaωt. παί), ἀμφί-επον (Let. πeκστ), κατα-ίσχεται (ἴσχω for σίσχω), and the lengthening in πὰρέχῃ (Od. 19. 113) and σὔνεχές (Od. 9. 74). Hiatus is also found twice before ὕλη (l. 14. 285, Od. 5. 257, once before ὕπνος (Od. 10. 68), and 18 times before ἑός (mostly in the principal caesura). These instances however are too few to prove anything.

Initial 5 or γ is chiefly traced in the Adverb ὡς, which when used after the Noun to which it refers is alloςwedd to lengthen the final syllable: as θεὸς ὥς, ὄρνιθες ὥς, 8dc. (so in 36 places). On the other hand there are nearly as many places vwhich do not admit an initial consonant : as κτίλος ὥς (l. 3. 196), λέονθʼ ὥς (Ii. 11. 383, 12- 293- 16. 755), θεὸς δʼ ὡς κτλ. Probably there- fore no spirant was heard, and the lengthening of the syllable before ὥς was a mere ' survivalb or traditional rule (ἡ 375, 1).