ἠέ, ἤ

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340. έ and ἦ are used in Homer as equivalent forms of the same Particle: which is (1) Disjunctive (or) and (2) used after Comparatives (than).

The αse of the Correlative ὴέ (ἢ)ὴέ (ἢ)ππeitἄer -οτ is also common in Homer

Il. 1. 504 η ἔπει η ἔργη

3. 239 ἦ οὐχ ἑσπέσθην Il. Il. ἦ δεύρω μὲν ἕποντο κτλ.

When a question is asked in a disjunctive form, the accent of the Particle ὴέ, ἦ is thrown back, i. e. it is written ἢε or ᾖ.

Il. 13. 251 ἠέ τι βέβληαι, βέλεος δέ σε τείρει ἀκωκή, ἢέ τευ ἀγγελίης μετʼ ἔμʼ ἥλυθες

Od. 4. 362 Ἀντίνο, ἦ ῥά τι ἴδμεν ἐνὶ φρεσίν, ἢε καὶ οὐκί

So when the first part of the question is not introduced by a Particle

Il. 10. 534 ψεύσομαι ἦ ἔτυμον ἐρέω;
shall I speak falsehood or the truth

Od. Il. 226 εἰλαπίνη ε γάμος

Cp. 4.314, 372.

Indeed the first half of the sentence need not be interrogative.

Od. 21. 193 ἔπος τί κε μυθησαίμην, ἦ αὐτὸς κεύθω;
I would say a wοrd; or shall I keep it to myself? (so perhaps Il. 14.190).

One of the members of a disjunctive question may be itself Disjunctive.

Il. 6. 377 πῇ ἔβη Ἀνδρομάχη λευκώλενος ἐκ μεγάροιο; ἠέ πῃ ἐς γαλόων ἦ εἰνατέρων ἐῦπέπλων, ἦ ἐς Ἀθηναίης ἐξοίχεται κτλ.

Here ἦ εἰνατέρων offers an alternative for γαλόων, but the main question is betςween these two alternatives on one side and ἐς Ἀθηναίης κτλ. on the other.

Most editors of Homer recognize an interτσgαtiυe use of the form ἢε, but erroneously.1 The questions in which ὴε is found are all disjunctive, so that we must write ἡέ . . . dε (l. 6. 378, 13. 251, 15. 735, 16. 12, 13. 17; Od. 1. 408, 2. 30, 11. 399).

Od. 13. 233 τίς γῆ; τίς δῆμος; τίνες ἀνέρες ἐγγεγάασιν; ἦ πού τις νήσων εὐδείελος, ὴέ τις ἀκτὴ | κεῖθʼ κτλ.

ᾖ πο means surely, I think: the sense being, "what land is this? It must be some island or else promontory." Hence we should read hέ in the last clause, not ᾖε (as Ameis, etc.).

έ or ἢ2e tiaππ is found after Comparatives ; also after Verbs implying comparison, as βούλομαι ρτηfer, φθάνω I come sοοner.

The correlative ἦ τε . . . ἢ τε appears in three places.

Il. 9. 276 ᾖ τʼ ἀνδρῶν ᾖ τε γυναικῶν
(where it seems to be ήμέν . . . ἠδέ.)

Il. 11.410 ᾖ τʼ ἔβλητʼ ᾖ τʼ ἔβαλ ἄλλον

Il. 17. 42 ᾖ τ ἀλκῆς ἦ τε φόβοιο
(where however Aristarchus read ὴδʼ . . . ηδέ.)

The single ἦ τε occurs with the meaning or in Il. 19. 148 ᾖ τʼ ἐχέμεν παρὰ σοί: and with the meaning tἀαπn in Od. 16. 216 (ἡ 332). Con- sidering the general difficulty of deciding between εἰ and ἦ in the text ob Homer, we cannot regard the form ἦ τε as resting on goodA evidence : see the next section.

341. Dependent Interrogative Clause. Α Disjunctive question after a Verb of asking, saying, knowing, etc. is generally expressed by the Correlatives έ (ἢ) . . . ηε (ᾖ).

Od. 1. 174 καί μοι τοῦτʼ ἀγόρευσον ἐτήτυμον, ὄφρʼ ἐ9 εἰδῶ, ἠὲ νέον μεθέπεις, ἦ καὶ πατρώίός ἐσσι κτλ.

Il. 2. 99 τλῆτε φίλοι καὶ μείνατʼ ἐπὶ χρόνον, ὄφρα δαῶμεν, ἦ ἐτεὸν Κάλχας μαντεύεται, ἢε καὶ οὐκί.

Other examples have been given in the account of the Subjunctive (§ 280) and the Optative (§ 302). In general it will be seen that these Dependent Clauses are the same in form as the corresponding direct questions.

In a very few instances the first member of a sentence of this kind is without ὴέ (ἢ).

Od. 4. 109 οὐδέ τι ἴδμεν | ζεῖ ὅ γʼ ἦ τέθνηκε (4.837, 11.464).

Il. 10. 544 εἴπʼ ἄγε . . . ὅππως τούσδʼ ἵππους λάβετον, καταδύντες ὅμιλον Γρώων, ἦ τίς σφωε πόρεν κτλ.

Also, Od. 4. 643.

The combination εἰ . . . ᾖε (ᾖ) is often found in the MSS. of Homer; see Il. 2. 357, 8. 532; Od. 4. 28, 712, 789, 15. 238, 260, 17. 308, 18. 265., 24- 2177. Lea Roche (following Bekker) reads ἢ . . . ηε () in all these places.

The common texts have in one place εἴ τε-ήε.

Il. 2. 349 γνάμεναι εἴ τε φεῦδος ὑπόσχεσις ε καὶ οὐκί.

In this instance, if the reading is right, there is a sight irregularity; the speaker beginning as if he meant to use εἴ τε . . . εῖ τε, and changing to the familiar ε καὶ οὐκί. But the best MSS. have εἴ τε . . . εἴ τε.

A. change of construction may also be seen in Od. 24. 235-8

μμερμήριξ . . . aκύσσαι καὶ περιφῦναι . . . ἦ πρῶτʼ ἐξερέοιτο
he debated about embracing, etc., . . . οr should he first ask, etc.

  • 1. This has been vwell shovwn by Dr. Praetorius, in a dissertation to which 1 am largely indebted (et οmerιschhe ebταch von ἡ (ε) in θταgesαt2en, Cassel, 1873). The rule as to the accentuation in a disjunctive question rests upon the unanimous testimony of the ancient grammarians, and is now generally adopted. The MSS. and the older editors give χέ or h οnly.