The Dual

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173. The Dual is chiefly used (1) of two objects thought of as a distinct pair, and (2) when the Numeral δύω is used.

  1. Thus we have the natural pairs χεῖρε, πήχεε, τένοντε, ὥμω, μηρώ, ὄσσε, ὀφθαλμώ, and (in the Gen. Dat.) ποδοῖιν, βλεφάροιιν: σταθμώ dοοτ-ροςtς ; ἵππω iRe ἀοτses off α carιοt, βόε αα γοδe ofʼ οπen, ἄρνε α ραiτ f aπmbς (for sacrifice); δοῦρε (in Π. 13. 241, 15. 139 ob the two spears usually carried, but δύο δοῦρε is more common); ποταμώ (l. 5. 773) of the tςwο rivers of the Γroad, and so κρουνώ (l. 22. 147). So of the tςwο warriors in a chariot (. 5. 244, 272, 558), two wrestlers (l. 23. 707), tςwο dancers (Od. 8. 378), the Sirens (Od. 12. 52, xxc.); the Ἀτρείδα and Αἴαντε.

    The Numeral is generally added in speaking of two wild animals (θῆρε δύω, λέοντε δύω, 8pc.): κάπρω (l. 11. 324) and λέοντε (. 16. 756) are hardly exceptions, since the context shows that two are meant. Also αἰετώ (Od. 2. 146) of two eagles sent ann an omen, and γῦπε (Od. 11. 578) of the vultures that devoured Γityοs.

    The Dual in Il. 8. 185-191 (where Hector calls to our horses by name) might be defended, because tςwο is the regular number; but probably v. 185 is spurious. n ll. 23- 413, again, -αἴ κʼ ἀποκηδήσαντε φερώμεθα χεῖρον ἄεθλον-the Dual is used because it is the horses that are chiefly in the driverʼs mind, although he associates himself with them. Ihn Il. 9. 182-195 the Dual refers to the two envoys, Phoenix being overlooked.

    Again, vwhen two agents have been mentioned together, or are represented as acting together in any vway, the Dual may be used : as B. Il. 531 τώ γʼ ὡς βουλεύσαντε (of Thetis and Achilles), 16. 823 (of a lion and boar fighting), Od. 3. 128, 13. 372, 8Sdc. Similarl y, of the meeting of tςwο rivers, D. 4. 453 ἐς μισγάγκειαν συμβάλλετον ὄβριμον ὕδωρ (p. 5- 774).

    The Dual Pronouns νῶί and σφῶι are used with comparative regularity: see 17. Il. 257. 335. 574 5- 34, 287, 718, kc. This usage may be a matter of traditional courtesy. Hence perhaps the scrupulous use vwhere the First Person Dual is meant; ll. 4. 407 ἀγαγόνθʼ (' Diοmede and 1); 8. 109 θεράποντε or attenadmπts; 1 Il. 3 13 τί παθόντε λελάσμεθα κτλ.; 12. 323 ἄὦ πέπον εἰ Il. Il. φυ- γόντε; Od. 3. 128 ἕνα θυμὸν ἔχοντε (' Ut yeses and Γb), n Od.2. 78 for ἀπαιτίζοντες ἕως should be read ἀπαιτίζονθʼ ος, since Γelemachus there is speaking of his mother and himself. So ςwith the Second Person, ll. .216 (Atbene and Here), 322(the heralds), 3. 279o 7. 279.

    In Il. 3. 278 καὶ οἱ ὑπένερθε καμόντας ἀνθράὼπους τίνυσθον, ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ the twο gods indicated by the Dual are doubtless Hades and Persephone, as appears from ll. 9. 456 θεοὶ δʼ ἐτέλειον ἐπαράς, Σεός τε καταχθόνιος καὶ ἐπαινὴ Περσεφόνεια, and 9. 559, vwhere Althaea beats upon the earth κικλήσκουσʼ Ἀίδην καὶ ἐπαινὴν Περσεφόνειαν. λAnd since these vwere the gods especially called upon as vwitnesses and avengers of vwrong, it is probable that they are meant in Od. Il. 273 θεοὶ δʼ ἐπιμάρτυροι ἕστα. The omission of the names may be a mark of reverence. f this vievw is correct, it removes the dificulty as to ἔστων (Meyer, Il. Il. 3 577, 1).

  2. Of the use with the Numeral the most signiicant examples are Od. 8. 35, 48 κούρω δὲ κρινθέντε δύω καὶ πεντήκοντα βήτην: where the Dual is used by a kind of attraction to the sword δύω.

    The Dual is never obligatory in Homer, since the Plural may always be used instead of it. Hence we often have a Dual CNoun or Pronoun with a Plural Verb or Adjective, and νice νersa.

    The Neut. Dual (like the Neat. Plur.) may go with a Sing. Verb : thus vwe have ὄσσε with all three Numbers.

    Certain of the ancient grammarians-Senodotus among them-supposed that Homer sometimes used the Dual for the Plural. But Aristarchus showed that in all the passages on vwhich this belief vwas founded the Dual either had its proper force, or vwas a false reading.

    The use of the Dual in Attic is nearl y the same as in Homer: in other dialects it appears to have become obsolete. This vwas one of the reasons that led some grammarians to maintain that Homer vwas an Athenian.