Stems Compounded with Prepositions

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127. These are of two readily distinguishable kinds

  1. The Preposition qualifies; as ἐπι-μάρτυρος μκwitππesς to (πορme- 2ᾖing), περι-κτίον-ες dμweerς aτομκπnd, ἀμφί-φαλο-ς μwith crest on ὁοtὰ ςidεs, πρό-φρων nit fοrμwward πuiπnd. Forms ob this kind are sometimes obtained directly from Compound Verbs: e.ρ. ἔξοχος from ἐξ-έχω, not from ἐξ and ὄχος.
  2. The Preposition governs, i.e. the Compound is equivalent to a Preposition governing a Noun ; ἐν-νύχ-ιο-ς in tie πi9t, κατα-χθόν-ιο-ς undeτ-gτοκπad, ἀπο-θύμ-ιο-ς adίsρίeasίπg (lit. aμwα frονm tἄe πwind), dc.; also (but less commonly) ςwithout a Secondary Suffix, as ἐγ-κέφαλο-ς braiπn (it. wwitὰiπn the ἀeαd), ἐπ- ἀρουρο-ς attached to the soil.

The placing of the Preposition before the gονerned Stem is a departure from the general rule stated above. It may be held, hovwever, that the Preposition serves (in some of these Com- pounds at least) as the limiting or qualifying member of the word. Compare νύχ-ιο-ς θγ πράt, ἐν-νύχ-ιο-ς witἄiπn tHe πί9ὰ2: it is evident that the ἐν limits the sense of νύχιος in essentially the same VWay as παν- in παν-νύχ-ιο-ς alt re πί9ὰt. So κατα- χθόν-ιο-ς is nearly equivalent to χθόν-ιο-ς; the Preposition merely makes it clear in what sense the Suffix -ιο is to be understοοd belonging to the earth b by being uππuder it.