Case Forms in -φιν

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154. ha Case-βnding -φι(ν) is found in a number of Homeric forms which appear to be construed indiβferently as Datives or Genitives. Irt wit be shown, however, that there is ground for believing these forms to have been used for the Dat. only in the instrumental and locatival senses (the latter being comparatively rare), and for the Gen. only m the ablatival sense. They formed, therefore, a 'mixed Case, composed of the same elements as the Latin Ablative, vi2. the original nstr. Abt. and Loc.

In respect of usage these forms are archaic : that is to say, they are confined for the most part to lines and phrases of a fixed conventional type. In several instances the survival is evidently due to the inluence of the metre: thus bακρυόφι, στή- θεσφι take the place of δακρύων, στηθέων; ὀστεόφιν and ἰκριόφιν, of ὀστέων, στέοισι, and ἰκρίων, ἰκρίοισι-dorms impossible in a hexa- meter. So δʼ ὄρεσφι, κατ ὄρεσφι, ὄπ’ ὄχεσφι, for διʼ ὁρέων, κατʼ ὁρέων, ὑπʼ ὀχέων.

155. Instrumental. The forms in -φι(ν appear to have been forms of the nstrumental (Sing. and Plur. , and the majority of the Homeric examples may be referred to that Case : ἑτέρηφι κwitB tἀe οtἀer ἀαnd (l. 16. 73n, 8Sxc.), δεξιτερῆφι (Od. 19. 4480); βίηφι 3γ fοce (l. 16. 826, Od. Il. 403, 8xxc, and in the phrase κρατερῆφι βίηφι), also in ςtτegtὰ (βίηφι φέρτερος, Od. 6. 6, c.) ; ἀναγκαίηφι δαμέντας (l. 20. 14 3): γενεῆφι νεώτατος (. 14. 1 12, dc.) : δακρυόφι πλῆσθεν κwere ῃttead wwitὰ tears (l. 17. 696, etc.).

In the 'comitative' use, αὐτοῖσιν ὄχεσφιν cἀariοt and atἰ, ἵπ- ποισιν καὶ ὄχεσφιν μwitB 2οrwes sand c2ariοt (. 12. 1 14, Od. 4. 5331; ςwith Prepositions, ἅμʼ ἠοῖ φαινομένηφιν, σὺν ἵπποισιν καὶ ὄχεσφιν (often in the lied), also παρʼ ὄχεσφιν (construed ςwith Verbs of rest, Π. 5. 28, 794., 8. 555, 12- 91, 15- 3-unless ὄχεσφιν is a Loc. (ἡ 157); with words expressing ααρτeeριent, tiἑenesς, 8c., as παλάμηφιν ἀρήρει hittedd ἀiς ἀand, θεόφιν μήστωρ ἀτάλαντος (l. 7. 356, etc.).

With Verbs of trusting; ll. 4. 353 ἱπποσύνῃ τε καὶ ἠνορέηφι πεποιθώς; so ἀγλαίηφι (. 6. 510), βίηφι (several times).

156. Ablative. Forms used as Ablatival Genitives are-

Il. 2.794 ναῦφιν ἀφορμηθεῖεν πtaτt fτοmm tἄe ςίρς.
13. 700 ναῦφιν ἀμυνόμενοι dgfeπndπρ tἢe πἀρς (ἡ 152).
3. 368 ἐκ δέ μοι ἔγχος ἠίχθη παλάμηφιν.
10. 458 ἀπὸ μὲν Il. Il. κυνέην κεφαλῆφιν ἕλοντο.
Od. 5. 1 52 δακρυόφιν τέρσοντο μweτe dried fτοwm teατd.
8. 279 καθύπερθε μελαθρόφιν ἐξεκέχυντο.

With the Prepοsitiοns-

ἐξ : as ἐξ εὐνῆφι, ἐκ θεόφιν, ἐκ πασσαλόφι, ἐκ ποντόφιν, ἐκ στή- θεσφιν, ἐξ Ἐρέβεσφιν, etc.

ἀπό: as ἀπὸ νευρῆφιν, αὐτόφιν, χαλκόφι, στήθεσφιν, ναῦφι, etc.

παρά when it means fτορmτ Il. 12. 225 παρὰ ναῦφιν ἐλευσόμεθ’ αὐτὰ κέλευθα, Od. 14. 498 παρὰ ναῦφιν ἐποτρύνειε νέεσθαι. So-

18. 305 παρὰ ναῦφιν ἀνέστη δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
8. 474 πρὶν ὄρθαι παρὰ ναῦφι ποδώκεα Πηλείωνα.
16. 281 ἐλπόμενοι παρὰ ναῦφι ποδώκεα Πηλείωνα
μηνιθμὸν μὲν ἀπορρῖψαι, φιλότητα δʼ ἑλέσθαι.

In these three places the notion of leaving the ships is implied, so παρὰ ναῦφι has the meaning of παρὰ νεῶν.

κατά dοκwππ fβορρα2 κατʼ ὄρεσφι (Π. 4. 452, 1 Il. 493).
ὁπό fτοπα nπder- ὑπʼ ὄχεσφι (l.23.7, ὑπὸ ζνγόφιν (l.24. 576).

With this use of -φι vwe may compare the use of the atνσe vwith ἔξ and ἀπό, vwhich is one of the peculiarities of the Arcadian and Cyprian dialects (Moister, ii. 119, 296). The parallel of the Latin Abt. has been noticed.

157. Locative. This use is found in several clear instances, as well as others of an indecisive kind:

Il. 19.323 νθίηφι inn Btiα; D. 13. 168 κλισίηφι λέλειπτο μας tgft iππ tἄe teπt; θύρηφιν οκt ηff dοοτς, fοriς (Od. 9. 238., 22. 220); κεφαλῆφιν ἔθηκε put on tie ἄeαdd (l. 10. 35, 257, 261 ; p. 49b, Od. 20. 94); Il. 11. 424 ὡς εἴ τε δαφοινοὶ θῆρες ὄρεσφιν: 19. 376 τὸ δὲ καίεται ὑψόθ’ ὄρεσφιν: 22. 1 3ῳ ἠύτε κίρκος ὄρεσφιν κτλ.; 22. 189 ὡς δʼ ὅτε νεβρὸν ὄρεσφι κυὼν κτλ.; Il. 2. 480 ἡθτε βοῦς ἀγέληφι μέγʼ ἔξοχος ἔπλετο πάντων: 16. 487 ἀγέληφι μετελθών cοmin9 into tθe herd.

With the Prepositions

-ἐν, as ll. 24. 284 ἐν χειρὶ . . . δεξιτερῆ-φιν (π Od. 15. 148)
πρός, in Od. 5. 432 πρὸς κοτυληδονόφιν (sticking) to the suckers
ἀμφί, in Od. 16. 145 φθινύθει δʼ ἀμφ ὀστεόφι χρώς
ὑπό, in ὑπʼ ὄχεσφι, ὑπὸ ζνγόφι (Π. 19. 454, unless the meaning is from under).

With ἐπί οπ, at, in the combinations ἐπὶἰκριόφιν, ἐπʼ ἐσχαρόφιν, ἐπὶ νευρῆφιν (all in the Od.) the Case may be Loc. or Gen.

παρ’ αὐτόφι occurs four times in the lad (12. 302., 13- 42., 20. 145., 23- 640). In three of these places there is a v.l. παρʼ αὐτδβι (or παραυτδ2ι), vwhich generally gives a better sense, and vwhich is required by the grammar in 13- 42 ἕλποντο δὲ νῆας Ἀχαιόάῶν αἱρήσειν κτενέειν τε παρʼ αὐτόφι (π παρὰ νηνσί). So 19. 255 ἐπ’ αὐτόφιν ῆατο σιγῇ where αὐτόθι (Nauck) is probably right. t seems that the Endings -θ and -φι vwere confused, possbly at a very early period.