The True Dative and Genitive

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158. There is only one example of the true Dat., vi2. B. 2. 353 ὡς φρήτρη φρήτρηφιν ἀρήγῃ, φῦλα δὲ φύλοις tᾶαt ρὰrαtrία πaγ ὁeαr aiad to ράτatria, and tribe to tribe. The instances of the true Gen. are-

  1. ll. 21. 295 κατὰ λιόφι κλυτὰ τείχεα λαὸν ἐέλσαι to cοορ nρ tHe aτππuγ μwitiin tie faρuοuς watts ῃ fος.
  2. ll. 21. 367 τεῖρε δʼ ἀῦτμὴ Ἡφαίστοιο βίηφι πολύφρονος re breαtὰ ῃ Πeραestnnς ('Hφαίστοιο βίη) κκοτe ἄρ out.
  3. Od. 12. 45 πολὺς δʼἀμφʼ ὀστεόφιν θὶς ἀνδρῶν πυθομένωνt2ere la aτομκπd α great 2eaρ ῃʼ οneε, ῃʼ πuen τοttiππg. But this may be an nstr. of πmαteriat,πx' a heap (is made) of bones'
  4. ll. 16.762κεφαλῆφιν ἐπεὶλάβεν οὐχὶμεθίει (Gen, 0 151, α); and 11. 350 οὐδʼ ἀφάμαρτε τιτυσκόμενος κεφαλῆφιν (but the Gen. might be construed with ἀφάμαρτε, as an Abt.).
  5. Certain uses with Prepositions; vi. ἐπί in ll. 13. 308 ἦ ἐπὶ δεξιόφιν Il. Il. ἦ ἐπʼ ἀριστερόφιν tοaτσdκ rίbὰt or ἔgf2; πρόσθε in Il. 5. 107 πρόσθʼ ἵπποιίν καὶ ὄχεσφιν : διά trονρὰ, in διὰ δὲ στή- θεσφιν ἔλασσεν (l. 5. 41, 8Sρc.), also 10. 185 ἔρχηται ὄι ὄρεσφι.

The first four of these references evidently do not prove much. The first would be a clear instance of the true Gen. if vwe could be sure of the text: but there is some probability in favour of λίοο (§ 98), proposed by Leo Meyer (Oecὶ. p. 35). n Il. 21. 367 vwe may perhaps take βίηφι as an bnstr.: ὰοt breath υezed him tιrοιιgι (by τeαson of ) the mίght pf Heρhαestus.

Again, the use vwith ἐπί may be locativalL vwith τπpδσθε ablatival (as vwith πpδ), The uses vwith διὰ are more important, because they are not isolated, but form a distinct group. It is improbable that διά thτοιgὰ should take an ablatival Gen. or a Locative. The Sanscrit nstr. is used of the space or time οveτ wὰicὰ an action extends (Delbruck, d. S. ἦ 88) : and so the Abt. in Latin (Rοby, 5§ 1176, 1189). This use appears in Greek as the Dat. of the ισαῳ bς ιwhicὰ, and perhaps in the phrases περιιόντι τῷ θέρει, 1c. It may be thought possible that διʼ ὄρεσφι and διὰ στήθεσφι are fragments of this use. f so, one or two other uses assigned above to the Loc. may be really Instr.; especially ὄρεσφι, ll. 11. 474, 22. 139, 189.

On the other hand, if the forms in -φι(v) constitute a ' mixed Case (Locative, Instrumental, and Ablative), there must have been a tendency to extend its sphere from the Loc. and nstr. to the Dat., and from the Abt. to the Gen. Thus the feςw instances of forms in -φι(v) standing for the true Dat. and Gen. may be first steps tovwards an amalgamation of five Cases (such as we have in the Greek Dual). One or two are probably among the ' false archaisms vwhicbh doubtless exist in Homer, though not to the extent supposed by some commentators : see § 216.