243. Following out the view of the participle as a verbal adjective, we may distinguish the following uses
- The participle is often used as an ordinary adjective qualifying a noun; as
θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες
βροτοὶ σῖτον ἔδοντες
πίθοι ποτὶ τοῖχον ἀρηρότες
and the like. In one or two cases it is substantival.
τὸ γὰρ γέρας ἐστὶ θανόντων
ψυχαὶ εἴδωλα καμόντων
Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες
A few participles have lost their verbal character altogether.
according to wont
Also the substantival.
The wοrd κρείων ruler retains a trace of the verb in εὐρὺ κρείων widely ruling. Cp. also the compounds πολύ-τλας, ἀ-κάμας, ἀ-δάμας, λυκά-βας.
- Much more frequently, the participle qualifies or forms part of the predication (§ 162) as in such combinations as
parted having quarreled
spoke with good thought
the participle has the same construction as the adjective in παλίνορσος ἀπέστη, or πρόφρων τέτληκας (§ 162.2). Thus it serves to express a predication which the speaker wishes to subordinate in some way to that of the governing verb. The participle may express different relations: attendant circumstance or manner (as in the examples quoted); cause, as Il.11.313
τί παθόντε λελάσμεθα θούριδος ἀλκῆς
or opposition, as often with καί and περ, etc., (Goodwin, §§ 832-846).
- Finally, a participle construed in apposition to a noun in an oblique case may imply a predication (§ 168) as
καπνὸν ἀποθρῴσκοντα νοῆσαι
to descry the smoke rising
(i. e. when it rises, or that it rises, etc.).
a. Α participle of this kind often has the character of a distinct clause, coming at the end of a sentence, and after a metrical pause.
Il. 4.420 δεινὸν δʼ ἔβραχε χαλκὸς ἐπὶ στήθεσσιν ἄνακτος
(as he roused himself)
Od. 23.205 ὣς φάτο, τῆς δʼ αὐτοῦ λύτο γούνατα καὶ φίλον ἦτορ
(when she recognized the token)
b. Not infrequently the word with which the participle shoαld be construed is understood, especially when it is a partitive or quasi-partitive genitive (§§ 147, 151).
Il. 2.153 ἀϋτὴ δʼ οὐρανὸν ἷκεν
a cry rose to heaven (of men) eager to return home
So Il. 12.339, 13.291, 498, 15.689.
Il. 5.162 πόρτιος ἠὲ βοὸς ξύλοχον κάτα βοσκομενάων
a heifer or cοw (of those) that are feeding in a thicket
Il. 5.665 τὸ μὲν οὔ τις ἐπεφράσατʼ οὐδʼ ἐνόησε
μηροῦ ἐξερύσαι δόρυ μείλινον, ὄφρ’ ἐπιβαίη,
no one . . . (of them) in their haste3
Il. 18.246 ὀρθῶν δʼ ἑσταότων ἀγορὴ γένετʼ
an assembly was held upstanding
(of them standing up)
Od. 17.489 Τηλέμαχος δʼ ἐν μὲν κραδίῃ μέγα πένθος ἄεξε
(for his having been wounded)
So with the dative
Il. 12.374 ἐπειγομένοισι δʼ ἵκοντο
came as a relief (to them) when they were hard pressed
Od. 5.152 κατείβετο δὲ γλυκὺς αἰὼν
c. The subject thus understood may be indefinite.
ll. 2.291 πόνος ἐστὶν ἀνιηθέντα νέεσθαι (see § 233)
Il. 6.267 οὐδέ πῃ ἔστι κελαινεφέϊ Κρονίωνι
αἵματι καὶ λύθρῳ πεπαλαγμένον εὐχετάασθαι
for one who is bespattered . . . tο pray
Il. 13.787 πὰρ δύναμιν δʼ οὐκ ἔστι καὶ ἐσσύμενον πολεμίζειν
So Il. 2.234, 14.63, Od. 2.311; cp. the phrase ὅσον τε γέγωνε βοήσας as far as a man makes himself heard by shouting.
d. The participle is sometimes found in a different case from a preceding pronoun with which it might have been construed. Thus we have
Il. 14.25 λάκε δέ σφι περὶ χροῒ χαλκὸς ἀτείρης
(construed with χροΐ instead of σφι)
Il. 16.531 ὅττι οἱ ὦκ’ ἤκουσε μέγας θεὸς εὐξαμένοιο
(with ἤκουσε instead of οἱ)
Od. 9.256 ὣς ἔφαθʼ, ἡμῖν δʼ αὖτε κατεκλάσθη φίλον ἦτορ
(So Il. 3.301, Od. 6.157, 9.458)
Il. 20.413 τὸν βάλε . . .
wounded him . . . in the back as he darted past
Od. 4.646 ἤ σε βίῃ ἀέκοντος ἀπηύρα
Il. 10.187 ὣς τῶν νήδυμος ὕπνος ἀπὸ βλεφάροιϊν ὀλώλει
νύκτα φυλασσομένοισι κακήν
(So Il. 14.141–3.)
Od. 17.555 μεταλλῆσαί τί ἑ θυμὸς
ἀμφὶ πόσει κέλεται καὶ κήδεά περ πεπαθυίῃ
We need not consider these as instances of anacoluthon or change of the construction. The participle, as we saw, does not need a preceding pronoun it may therefore have a construction independent of such a pronoun. And it is characteristic of Homer not to employ concord as a means of connecting distant words when other constructions are admissible.