205. The preposition προτί (πρός, ποτί) expresses attitude or direction towards an object. It is found in the adverbial use
Od. 5.255 πρὸς δʼ ἄρα πηδάλιον ποιήσατο
he made a rudder to be put to (the raft)
It is a question whether προτί and ποτί are originally the same word. The present text of Homer does not indicate any difference of usage.
206. With the dative προτί means resting on, against, beside a thing.
Il. 4.112 ποτὶ γαίῃ ἀγκλίνας
resting (the bow) against the ground
Od. 5.32 πρὸς ἀλλήλῃσιν ἔχονται
hold οn to one another
With verbs of motion it implies that the motion ends on or beside the object.
Od. 9.459 θεινομένου πρὸς οὔδεϊ
The later meaning besides, in addition, is only found in Od. 10.68 ἄασάν μ ἕταροί τε κακοὶ πρὸς τοῖσί τε ὕπνος.
207. With the accusative προτί is very common, meaning towards
πρὸς πόλιν tονwards the city (not necessarily reaching it)
Il. 8.364 κλαίεσκε πρὸς οὐρανόν
cried out to heaven
hence to, on to (mostly with verbs of motion)
Od. 4.42 ἔκλιναν πρὸς ἐνώπια
leaned against the walls
πρὸς δαίμονα φωτὶ μάχεσθαι
to fight with a man in opposition to a god
also addressing (persons), with verbs of speaking, etc.; in one place of time.
Od. 17.191 ποτὶ ἕσπερα
Note that the literal local sense appears in all the Homeric uses of προτί with the accusative: the metaphorical uses, viz. in respect of, for the purpose of, in proportion to, according to, etc., are later.
208. With the genitive προτί expresses direction without the idea of motion towards or rest on the object
Od. 13.110 αἱ μὲν πρὸς βορέαο . . . αἱ δʼ αὖ πρὸς νότου
i. e. not at or facing the north and south, but more generally, in the direction fixed by north and south.
Il. 10.428-430 πρὸς μὲν ἁλὸς . . . πρὸς Θύμβρης
Il. 22.198 ποτὶ πτόλιος
in the direction of Troy
Od. 8.29 ἠὲ πρὸς ἠοίων ἢ ἑσπερίων ἀνθρώπων
(= from east or west)
- at the hand of, from(persons).
Il. 1.160 τιμὴν ἀρνύμενοι πρὸς Τρώων
Il. 11.831 τά σε προτί φασιν Ἀχιλλῆος δεδιδάχθαι
- on the part of, by the will of.
Il. 1.239 οἵ τε θέμιστας πρὸς Διὸς εἰρύαται
who uphold judgements on behalf of Zeus
Il. 6.456 πρὸς ἄλλης ἱστὸν ὑφαίνοις
at another's bidding
And, perhaps in a metaphorical sense, Od. 6.207 πρὸς γὰρ Διός εἰσιν ἅπαντες ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε.
- before, by (in oaths and entreaties).
Od. 13.324 πρὸς πατρὸς γουνάζομαι
I entreat in the name of your father
The preposition here implies that the god or person sworn by is made a party to the act.
Od. 11.66-67 νῦν δέ σε τῶν ὄπιθεν γουνάζομαι οὐ παρεόντων,
πρός τʼ ἀλόχου καὶ πατρός κτλ.
on the part of the absent ones I entreat, etc.
It will be seen that προτί with a genitive is seldom used in the strictly local sense except when there is a contrast between two directions. Hence the use approaches closely to that of the Genitive of Place given in § 149.2; compare (e.g.) πρὸς βορέαο-πρὸς νότου with Od. 1.24 οἱ μὲν δυσομένου Ὑπερίονος οἱ δʼ ἀνιόντος. The case is accordingly 'quasi-partitive' (i.e. true) genitive, and has no ablatival character.