330. The uses of καί are in the main the same in all periods of Greek. It is
- A copulative conjunction, conveying the idea of addition to what has preceded
Ζηνὶ φόως ἐρέουσα καὶ ἄλλοις
to Zeus and the others besides
ὥς ἄρʼ ἔφη καὶ κτλ
thus he spoke and thereupon, etc.
- A strengthening or emphasizing particle meaning also, even, just.
Il. 1.63 ἢ καὶ ὀνειροπόλον
or even a dream-prophet
Il. 3.176 τὸ καὶ κλαίουσα τέτηκα
which is the very reason that I am wasted
It is especially used with words that imply comparison, increase or diminution, extension of time or the reverse, etc., as
another (not this only)
himself (as well as others)
long ago (not merely nοw)
another time (if not now)
καὶ μάλα, καὶ λίην
(in a high degree, not merely in an ordinary degree)
so with comparatives, καὶ μεῖζον, καὶ ῥίγιον, etc. Both terms of a comparison may be strengthened in this way.
Il. 1.81 εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ,
ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν κτλ.
Notice, too, the use at the beginning of an apodosis, esp. with adverbs of time.
Il. 1.477 ἦμος δʼ ἠριγένεια φάνη ῥοδοδάκτυλος Ἠώς,
καὶ τότʼ ἔπειτʼ κτλ.
καί precedes the word which it emphasizes, but is sometimes separated from it by other particles, enclitic pronouns, etc.
Il. 1.213 καί ποτέ τοι τρὶς τόσσα
(not merely compensation but) three times as much
Il. 2.292 καὶ γάρ τίς θʼ ἕνα μῆνα μένων
a man who stays even one month
So Il. 7.281 καὶ ἴδμεν ἅπαντες (= ἴσμεν καὶ πάντες).
καὶ εἰ and εἰ καί. The combination καὶ εἰ indicates that the whole condition is an extreme one: even on the supposition that.
But with the order εἰ καί the καί emphasizes particular words.
εἰ καὶ μάλα καρτερός ἐστι
even if he is (I will go so far as to say) very strong
Hence εἰ καί usually implies that the supposition is more or less true.