45. In the forms to which we now proceed the verb stem receives a suffix which serves to distinguish the present stem; as τύπ-τω, κάμ-νω, βά-σκω, κτείνω (for κτεν-ιω).
These suffixes may be compared with other elements used in the same way, but not always confined to the present; as κ in
- ἔσθειν (ἐδ-θειν)
(ἀγερ-, in ἀγείρω), etc.
These elements were called by Curtius Root-Determinatives (Chron. p. 22 ff.)—the name implying that they are of the nature of suffixes modifying or 'determiningʼ the meaning of a simple root. But their origin and primitive significance are quite unknown (Brugmann, Grundriss, ii. § 8, n. 2).
46. The Τ-Class. The suffix -τε (ο) is usually found with a verb stem ending in a labial mute (π, β, φ).
- ἔνιπ-τε (ἐνῑπ-ή)
- ἅπτω (ἁφ-)
- κρύπτων (κρύφ-α)
- θάπτε (θᾰφ-)
to sew, string together
- βλάπτει (βλᾰβ-)
The stem is in the weak form; the corresponding long forms are generally wanting.
This suffix is combined with reduplication in ἰ-άπ-τω (for ἰ-ι̯άπτω, cp. Lat. jac-io) hurl, which occurs in Od. 2.376 κατὰ χρόα καλὸν ἰάπτῃ shall maltreat (lit. knock about) her fair flesh.1
-πτ- may be for -π-ι̯-, and, if so, these verbs would belong to the Ι-Class (§ 50). In some cases, however, the -π- represents an original guttural. Thus we find
ἐνίσσω (ἑνικ-ι̯ω), ἐνίπτω (ἐνιπ-ή)
πέσσω, later πέπτω (πέπ-ων)
νίζω, later νίπτω (ἀπονίπτεσθαι in Od. 18.179 is doubtful.)
Here ἐνίσσω, πέσσω, νίζω are formed by the suffix -ι̯ε(ο), and consequently ἐνίπτω, πέπτω, νίπτω must be otherwise explained. So in σκέπτομαι, since σκεπ- is for σπεκ- (Lat. spec-io), the form with -πτ- must be at least later than the metathesis. Hence if we adhere to the supposition that -πτ- is for -πι̯- we must explain these four forms as due to the analogy of other verbs in -πτε(ο) already in existence.
47. The Nasal Class. The suffix is -νε(ο) after a vowel or -μ
- φθά-νει comes first
- τί-νων paying (a penalty)
- δῦ-νε sank in
- θῦ- νον bustled
- κάμ-νε grew weary
- τάμ-νε cut
-ᾰνε(ο) after a mute
makes to forget
- οἰδ- άνει
often with the weak stem and -ν- inserted.
The suffix -ανε(ο) is combined with reduplication (as in § 35) in πιμ-πλ-άνεται (Il. 9.679), ἰσχάνω (for *σι-σχ-άνω), ἱζάνω (for *σι-σδ-άνω).
The class of verbs in -νω is derived from the athematic verbs in -νυ-. Sometimes, as has been noticed (§ 18), -νυ takes the thematic ε or ο after it, as in ὀμ-νύω for ὄμνῡ-μι; but in other cases, especially when -νυ follows a vowel, υ becomes ϝ and is lost. Thus ἀ-νυ- gives ἀνύω accomplish, and also ἄνεται (ᾱ) draws to a close: so τίνυ-ται punishes and τίνω, φθίνυ- (in φθῐνύ-θω) and φθίνω. The vowel of ἄνω, φθάνω, τίνω, φθίνω is long in Homer, short in Attic (cp. Homeric ξεῖν-ος for ξέν-ϝος, Attic ξέν-ος) ; whereas in κλίνω, κρίνω (for κλιν-ι̯ω, κριν-ι̯ω) it is always long. Note also that -νε(ο) for -νϝε(ο) is confined to the present, while the ν of κλίνω, etc., appears in other tenses (Solmsen, K. Z. xxix. 78).
ἐλαύνω has been explained as *ἐλα-νυ-ω, but there is no parallel for epenthesis of υ.
The ᾱ of ἱκάνω, κιχάνω points to -αν-ϝω, but the forms have not been satisfactorily explained.
48. Stems formed by -σκε(ο), the Iterative class of Curtius.
Stems ending in a consonant sometimes insert ι.
I find (Od. 19.158)
get benefit from (Il. 13.733)
A final consonant is lost before σκ in δι-δασκέ-μεν (for δι-δαχ-σκε-), ἴσκω and ἐΐσκω (cp. ἴκ-ελος), τι-τύσκε-το (τῠκ- or τῠχ-), δει-δίσκετο welcomed (δῐκ-); probably also in μίσγο-ν (for μιγ-σκο-ν) and πάσχω (or παθ-σκω).
49. Iterative Tenses. The suffix -σκε(ο) is also used to form a number of past tenses with iterative meaning, as
- ἔσκε (for ἐσ-σκε)
used to be
used to hold
- πελέ-σκε-ο (Il. 22.433)
- νικά-σκο-μεν (Od. 11.512)
- τρωπά-σκετο (Il. 11.568)
- ὤθε-σκε, etc.
and from aorist stems, as στά-σκε, δό-σκο-ν, εἴπε-σκε, φάνε-σκε, ἐρητύ-σα- σκε, δα-σά-σκε-το, ὤσα-σκε, etc. These formations differ from the present stems described above.
- in carrying distinctly the notion of repeated action and
- in being confined to the Past Indicative.
They are peculiar to the Ionic dialect, and the forms derived from Aorists in -σα are only found in Homer.
ἔ-φασκο-ν has sometimes a distinctly iterative meaning in Homer, as
Od. 8.565 Ναυσιθόον, ὃς ἔφασκε Ποσειδάωνʼ ἀγάσασθαι
and the present φάσκω does not occur. It may be regarded as a link between the two groups of stems with -σκ.
It is remarkable that in the Latin verbs in -sco we may distinguish in the same way between the regular inceptives, such as lique-sco, puer-a-sco, and the presents, such as pa-sco, pro-fic-iscor, in which the inceptive meaning is hardly, or not at all, perceptible. Originally, no doubt, there was a single group of derivative stems in -σκε(ο) with the meaning of continued or repeated action.
- ἁνδ-άνει (ἁδ-)
- 1With ἰ-άπ-τω may be connected ἑ-άφ-θη, which occurs in the phrase ἐπὶ δʼ ἀσπὶς ἑάφθη καὶ κόρυς (Il. 13.543, 14.419), of a warriorʼs shield, which falls with or after him. For the aspirate (ἑάφθη for ἑ-ι̯άφθη) compare ἕηκα, ἕεστο, etc. This explanation was given by Ebel, in K. Z. iv. 167. The scholar to whom I owe this reference, F. Froehde, derives it from Sanskrit vapāmi, "I throw, strew about": so ἁπτοεπής= "one whose words are thrown about at random" (Bezz. Beitr. iii. 24). See Curtius, Verb. ii. 364 (2 ed.).