265. The prοnοun ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, and the adverbs formed from the same stem, especially ὡς, ὅτε, ἕως, are occasionally used in a demonstrative or quasi-demonstrative sense.
- After καί, οὐδέ, μηδέ
Il. 21.198 ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅς δείδοικε
eνen he fears
Il. 6.59 μηδʼ ὃς φύγοι
may not eνen he escape
and often in the combinations καὶ ὥς eνen sο, οὐδʼ ὥς not eνen sο. So οὐδʼ ἔνθα not even there (Od. 11.18).
- With μέν and δέ, to express a contrast between indefinite objects.
Il. 11.64 ὥς Ἕκτωρ ὁτὲ μέν τε μετὰ πρότοισι φάνεσκεν
ἄλλοτε δʼ ἐν πυμάτοισι κτλ.
So 18.599, 20.49.
Il. 12.141 οἱ δʼ ἦ τοι ἧος μὲν κτλ.
up to a certain time
Il. 17.178 ὁτὲ δʼ αὐτὸς ἐποτρύνει
but sometimes, etc.
- In the adverb ὥς so; especially as the second member of the correlation ὡς . . . ὥς as . . . so. A single ὥς is often used where it may be either a relative or a demonstrative, as in the formula ὣς φάτο, ὣς εἰπών, etc. Cp. the Latin quae quum dixisset, etc. The other instances in which we have to translate ὥς as a demonstrative are rare, e.g. Il. 3.339 ὣς δʼ αὔτως and in like manner.
Among demonstrative uses of ὅς it is usual to count the use with γάρ, as ὃς γάρ, ὡς γάρ, ἵνα γάρ. This however is an error, arising from the occasional use of γάρ where it cannot be translated for see § 348.3.
Some commentators find a demonstrative ὅς in
Od. 4.388 τόν γʼ εἴ πως σὺ δύναιο λοχησάμενος λελαβέσθαι,
ὅς κέν τοι εἴπῃσιν ὁδόν κτλ.
Here however the clause ὅς κέν τοι κτλ. is not the apodosis, but a relative clause expressing purpose. The peculiarity of the passage is merely that the apodosis is left to be understood: if you can seize him (do so), that he may tell you, etc Cp. Od. 5.17, 10.539.
These idioms are usually regarded as the remains of an earlier use of ὅς in the simple anaphoric sense. The growth of a relative out of a demonstrative has been already exemplified in the article (§ 262). But the relatival use of ὅς is so ancient that any attempt to trace its growth from an earlier syntax must be of very uncertain value.