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36. These tenses are formed with the weak stem, and either (1) reduplication of an initial consonant with -ε-, or (2) Attic reduplication. The following are the chief examples.

  1. -ᾰ-:

    • ἐκ-λέλαθ-ον
      made to forget
    • λελαβέσθαι
      to seize
    • κεκαδών
    • κεκάδοντο
    • κεχάροντο
    • ἀμ-πεπαλών
      brandishing on high
    • τεταγών
    • ἤγ-αγ-ον
    • ἐξ-ήπαφε
    • ἤραρε
    • ἤκαχε
  2. -ῐ-:

    may persuade

    to spare

  3. -ῠ-:

    • τετύκ-οντο
      made for themselves
    • πεπύθοιτο
      may hear by report
    • κεκύθωσι
      shall hide
  4. -ᾰρ- (-ρᾰ-), -ᾰλ-, -λ-:

    • τετάρπ-ετο
      was pleased
    • πέφραδε
      showed forth
    • ἄλ-αλκε
      warded off
    • ἐ-κέ-κλ-ετο
      shouted (κελ-)
  5. -ᾰ-, -ν- (for -εν-):

    • λελάχ-ητε (subjunctive)
      make to share
    • δέδαεν
      taught (cp. § 31.5)
    • ἔ-πε-φν-ε
      (cp. πέ-φᾰ-ται is slain)
  6. Loss of -ε-:

    ἔ-τε-τμε found caught (τεμ-?)
    ἔειπον said (perhaps for ἐ-ϝε-ϝεπ-ον[fn] The difficulty in the way of this explanation is that in the old Attic inscriptions which distinguish the original diphthong -ει- (written ΕΙ) from the sound arising from contraction or 'compensatory' lengthening (written Ε), the word εἶπε is always written with ΕΙ (Cauer in Curt. Stud. viii. 257). In Sanskrit the corresponding form is avocam, for a-va-vac-am (văc becoming uc). Answering to this we expect in Greek ἔευπον (Vogrinz, Gr. d. hom. Dial. p. 123).[/fn])

    also ἕσπετο followed, if it is taken to be for σέσπε-το.

    The forms which point to *σε-σπε-το, viz. ἕσπωνται (Od. 12.349), ἑσποίμην (Od. 19.579, 21.77), ἑσπέσθω (Il. 12.350, 363), ἑσπόμενος (Il. 10.246, 12.395, 13.570), can be easily altered (e.g. by writing ἅμα σποίμην for ἅμʼ ἑσποίμην). We always have ἐπι-σπέσθαι, ἐπι-σπόμενος, μετασπόμενος (never ἐφ-εσπόμενος, etc.); i. e. ἑσπ- only creeps in when a preceding final vowel can be elided without further change.

  7. A peculiar reduplication is found in ἠρύκακε (present ἐρύκ-ω) checked, and ἠνίπαπε (ἐνιπή) rebuked.

    These aorists are exclusively Homeric, except ἤγαγον and ἔειπον (Attic εἶπον). They are mostly transitive or causative in meaning; compare ἔ-λαχο-ν I got for my share, with λέλαχο-ν I made to share; ἄρηρε is fitting, with ἤραρε made to fit, etc.

    The infinitive δεδάα-σθαι (Od. 16.316) is not to be connected with the perfect participle δεδα-ώς, but is for δεδαέσθαι, infinitive middle of the reduplicated aorist δέδαεν taught. Thus the sense is to have oneself taught.

37. Aorists in -ᾰ. Besides the usual forms of ἔ-ειπο-ν (εἶ-πο-ν) we find a 2nd singular εἶπα-ς (Il. 1.106, 108), or ἔ-ειπα-ς (Il. 24.379), 2nd plural εἴπα-τε (Od. 3.427). Answering to the Attic ἤνεγκον Homer has ἤνεικα, optative ἐνείκα-ι, etc.: but infinitive ἐνεικέ-μεν (Il. 19.194). In these two cases the form in -ον is probably older.

Suggested Citation

D.B. Monro, A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-04-7.