209. The prepositiοn ἀνά (ἄν) means up, upwards, up through. It is rarely used as a pure adverb (the form ἄνω being preferred) except in the elliptical ἄνα up! But it has a derivative adverbial sense in Il. 18.562.
μέλανες δʼ ἀνὰ βότρυες ἦσαν
there were dark grapes throughout
Tmesis may be seen in Il. 2.278
ἀνὰ δʼ ὁ πτολίπορθος Ὀδυσσεὺς ἔστη
and in ἀνὰ δʼ ἔσχετο (ἀνέσχετο), etc. In tmesis and composition it sometimes expresses reverse action, as ἀνα-λύω. So ἀνα-βάλλω to put off.
ἀνά is seldom used with the dative; the meaning is up on (a height of some kind).
Il. 1.15 χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ
raised on a golden staff
Il. 15.152 ἀνὰ Γαργάρῳ
So 8.441, 14.352, 18.177; Od. 11.128, 23.275, 24.8. This use is occasionally found in Pindar (Ol. 8.67, Pyth. 1.10), and lyric parts of tragedγ, but is not Attic.
With the genitive ἀνά is only used in three places in the Odyssey (2.416, 9.177, 15.284), and only of going on board a ship (ἀνὰ νηὸς βαίνω). The meaning up from is only found in composition.
ἀνέδυ πολιῆς ἁλός, etc.
210. With the accusative ἀνά means up along, up through, of motion or extent: ἀνὰ ἄστυ, ἅμ πεδίον, ἀνὰ δώματα, ἀνʼ ὁδόν, ἀνʼ Ἑλλάδα, etc.
Il. 5.74 ἀνʼ ὄδόντας ὑπὸ γλῶσσαν τάμε χαλκός
the spear cut its way up through the teeth
and under the tongue
so ἀνὰ στόμα, used literally (Il. 16.349, 22.452, etc.), and also of wοrds uttered.
Il. 2.250 βασιλῆας ἀνὰ στόμʼ ἔχων
having the kings passing through your mouth
(i. e. talking freely of them)
Similarly ἀνὰ θυμόν of thoughts rising in the mind. Note also the application to mixing.
Od. 4.41 πὰρ δʼ ἔβαλον ζειάς, ἀνὰ δὲ κρῖ λευκὸν ἔμιξαν
Cp. Od. 9.209 (with the note in Merry and Riddell's edition). The accusative is evidently one of Space (§ 138).
The use with collective nouns, as ἀνʼ ὅμιλον through the press, μάχην ἀνά, ἄμ φόνον ἂν νέκυας, etc. seems to be peculiar to the Iiad.
The use in Il. 14.80 ἀνὰ νόκτα may be explained either of time or of space cp. ὑπὸ νύκτα (§ 203), διὰ νύκτα (§ 215).
The meaning up on, up to (of motion) may be traced in
Il. 10.465 θῆκεν ἀνὰ μυρίκην
Od. 22. 176 κίονʼ ἀνʼ ὑψηλὴν ἐρύσαι
draw (the cord) up to a high pillar
perhaps in the phrase ἀνά θʼ ἅρματα ποικίλʼ ἔβαινον (Od. 3.492, etc.).