Athematic Reduplicated Present

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16. These presents are formed by reduplication, usually of the initial consonant with ῐ.

  • τίθη-σι
  • δίδω-μι
    I give
  • ἵη-σι (for σίση-σι?)
  • ἱστᾶσι (σι-στᾰ-)
    they set
  • πιμπλᾶσι[fn]The μ is euphonic: it is dropped after μ in ἐμ-πίπλη-θι.[/fn]
    they fill
  • δίδη
  • βιβά-ς

with Attic reduplication ὀνίνη-σι (for ὀν-ονη-) benefits, perhaps also ἵλη-θι be appeased (ἵλα-μαι I propitiate; Hom. H. xxi. 5: stem ῑ̔λα for σι-σλᾰ, Meyer, G. G. p. 437).

In these present stems the quantity of the vowel in the stem regularly varies under the rules laid down in § 6.1.

The vowel is long in ἐμ-πίπλη-θι (Il. 21.311), ἵλη-θι, δίδω-θι (Od. 3.380)[fn]The variation is perhaps less regular in the imperative; cp. κλῦ-θι. In Sanskrit the 3rd singular imperative has the strong stem.[/fn] and the infinitive τιθή-μεναι (Il. 23.83 & 247) and participle τιθή-μενος (Il. 10.34). Also in δίζη-μαι (I seek; for *δι-δι̯η-), the Homeric verb answering to Attic ζη-τέω.

ἵημι is now generally connected with Latin sero (for si-so, cp. ἵστημι sisto). Earlier scholars (as Bopp) derived it from the root (Latin ja-c-io). Possibly it represents both σί-σημι (sā-) and ἰ-ι̯ημι (yā-). In meaning it is much nearer to jacio than to sero.

Suggested Citation

D.B. Monro, A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-947822-04-7.